Journal of Religion and Health

, Volume 57, Issue 3, pp 781–795 | Cite as

Exploring Relationship Between Spiritual Intelligence, Religiosity and Life Satisfaction Among Elderly Pakistani Muslims

  • Khadeeja MunawarEmail author
  • Omama Tariq
Original Paper


This study is an effort to explore the relationship between spiritual intelligence, religiosity and life satisfaction in elderly Pakistani Muslims. A non-probability purposive sampling technique is utilized in order to recruit a sample of 100 elderly people (n = 50 men; n = 50 = women). Standardized questionnaires were used for collecting data. Data analysis was carried out using Pearson product–moment correlation analysis and independent sample t test. Findings revealed a significant correlation between spiritual intelligence, religiosity and life satisfaction among Pakistani elderly Muslim people. Gender differences were considered while conducting the study, and findings are valid for both male and female elderly Pakistani Muslims. Some findings of this study endorse findings of some previous studies, and it adds latest insights to the existing body of knowledge on the subject.


Spiritual intelligence Religiosity Life satisfaction Elderly Pakistani Muslims 



Authors would like to thank and acknowledge the contributions and input provided by Mr. Fahad Riaz Choudhry in preparation, revision and proofreading of this manuscript.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

In order to conduct this research, departmental ethical approval was provided by the university. Prior permissions of the tools being used were sought from the respective authors of the tools. Informed consent was taken from all the participants, and they were briefed about the research. After taking the permission officially from all the authors of questionnaires, data collection was started and questionnaires were presented to those participants, who met the required criteria. Anonymity of the participants as well as confidentiality of the data was maintained.

Conflict of interest

Author(s) have declared that they did not receive any financial support for this study. Moreover, there are no potential conflicts of interest regarding research, authorship and/or in the publication of this article.

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of WahWah CanttPakistan
  2. 2.Institute of Applied PsychologyUniversity of the PunjabLahorePakistan

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