Studies have shown that unvalued life and moral decadence among Nigerian students have reached an unbearable level (e.g. Adebisi in Adv Soc Sci Res J 5(2):190–199, 2018). Hence, this study was undertaken to find out if and how REBE can impact on negative value system among students. A total of 146 participants allocated randomly to the intervention group and the no-contact control group served as participants in this study. A 12-week REBE-programme that focused on reducing the negative value system was delivered to the intervention group by the therapists. Data analyses were completed using repeated-measures ANOVA. The result showed that REBE-programme strategy is significantly impactful in improving desirable value systems as measured by LVI at the posttest. Similarly, the effect of the treatment was maintained by the participants in treatment group compared to those in the comparison group at follow-up stage. Given the results obtained, we concluded that rational emotive behavioral education has a therapeutic effect in reducing negative value orientation among students exhibiting inappropriate behaviors and maintain greater enhanced improvement overtime. This is also the first study that tested the impact of rational emotive behavioral education on improving a desirable value system. Therefore, we suggest that future studies explore the impact of rational emotive behavioral education on a negative value system among students using similar populations.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Abiogu, G. C., Ede, M. O., Amaeze, F. E., Nnamani, O., Agah, J. J., Ogheneakoke, C. E., et al. (2020). Impact of rational emotive behavioral therapy on personal value system of students with visual impairment: A group randomized control study. Medicine, 99(45), e22333.
Adebisi, K. S. (2018). Moral decadence among Nigerian youths as future leaders: A socio-cultural regeneration. Advances in Social Sciences Research Journal, 5(2), 190–199.
Afuge, A. (2015). Moral decadence in tertiary institution. Journal of Educational Studies, 6(13), 234–245.
Ali, A. A., Dada, I. T., Isiaka, G. A., & Salmon, S. A. (2014). Types, causes and management of indiscipline acts among secondary school students in Shomolu Local Government Area of Lagos State. Journal of Studies in Social Sciences, 8(2), 254–287.
Almeida, L., & Pinto, H. R. (2014). Life values inventory (LVI): Portuguese adaptation studies. Retrieved December 12, 2014, from http://cjcdonline.ca/wp-content/uploads/2014/11/Life-Values-Inventory-LVI.pdf.
Amoke, C. V., Ede, M. O., Nwokeoma, B. N., Onah, S. O., Ikechukwu-Ilomuanya, A. B., Albi-Oparaocha, F. C., et al. (2020). Effects of group cognitive-behavioral therapy on psychological distress of awaiting trial prison inmates. Medicine, 99(17), e18034.
Antes, R. L., & Nardini, M. L. (1994). Another view of school reform values and ethics. Counselling & Values, 38(3), 215–223.
Asiyai, R. I. (2019). Deviant behaviour in secondary school and its impact on students’ learning. Journal of Educational and Social Research, 9(3), 170–177.
Asonibare, J. B. (2016). Modifying maladaptive behavior in schools. Guidance and counselling in education. Ilorin: University Press.
Bardi, A., & Goodwin, R. (2011). The dual route to value change: Individual processes and cultural moderators. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 42, 271–287.
Beck, A. T. (1976). Cognitive therapy and the emotional disorder. New York: International Universities Press.
Bolu-steve, F. N., & Esere, M. O. (2017). Strategies for managing deviant behaviour among in-school adolescents as expressed by secondary school counsellors in Kwara State, Nigeria. Inkanyiso: Journal of Humanities & Social Science, 9(1), 87–98.
Bourne, P. A., Sharpe, C. L., Peterkin, V. M. S., et al. (2018). Students’ perception of curbing deviant behaviours in Jamaican secondary schools: An assessment of the corrective measures used in behaviour modifications by school personnel. Insights Anthropology, 2(1), 36–66.
Brown, D., & Crace, R. K. (1996). Life values inventory. Chapel Hill: Life Values Resources.
Brown, D., & Crace, R. K. (2002). Life values inventory: Facilitor’s guide. Virginia: Applied Psychological Resource.
Caruso, C., Angelone, L., Abbata, E., Ionni, V., Biondi, C., Agostino, C. D., et al. (2018). Effects of a REBT based training on children and teachers in primary school. Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive-Behavior Therapy, 36, 1–14.
Center for Sex Offender Management. (2000). Myths and facts about sex offenders. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs.
Cohen, J. (1969). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences. NY: Academic Press.
de Klerk, J., & Rens, J. (2003). The role of values in school discipline. Koers, 68(4), 353–371.
De Wet, C. (2003). Media-analiseoormisdaad in die Suid-Afrikaanse onderwys. South African Journal of Education, 23(1), 36–44.
DiGiuseppe, R., Doyle, K. A., Dryden, W., & Backx, W. (2014). A practitioner’s guide to rational emotive behavior therapy (3rd ed.). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Ede, M. O., Anyanwu, J. I., Onuigbo, L. N., Ifelunni, C. O., Alabi-Oparaocha, F. C., Okenyi, E. C., et al. (2020). Rational emotive family health therapy for reducing parenting stress in families of children with autism spectrum disorders: A group randomized control study. Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive-Behavior Therapy. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10942-020-00342-7.
Ede, M. O., Igbo, J. N., Eseadi, C., Ede, K. R., Ezegbe, B. N., Ede, A. O., et al. (2019). Effect of group cognitive behavioural therapy on depressive symptoms in a sample of college adolescents in Nigeria. Journal of Rational-Emotive and Cognitive-Behavior Therapy. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10942-019-00327-1.
Ellis, A. E. (1972). Emotional education in the classroom: The living school. Journal of Child Psychology, 1, 19–22.
Ellis, A. (1994). Reason and emotion in psychotherapy. Secaucus, NJ: Birch Lane.
Ellis, A. E., & Bernard, M. E. (2006). Rational emotive approaches to the problems of childhood (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Springer.
Emaikwu, S. O. (2012). Assessing the impact of examination malpractice on the measurement of ability in Nigeria. International Journal of Social Science and Education, 2(12), 748–757.
Eze, J. U., Ede, M. O., Igbo, J. N., & Ezenwaji, I. (2016). Value orientation and entrepreneurial skill acquisitions of secondary school students. The Social Sciences, 11(22), 5301–5308.
Ezegbe, B. N., Eseadi, C., Ede, M. O., Igbo, J. N., Anyanwu, J. I., Ede, K. R., et al. (2019). Impacts of cognitive-behavioral intervention on anxiety and depression among social science education students: A randomized controlled trial. Medicine, 98(15), e14935.
Flak, T. (1998). The efficacy of group counselling interventions employing short-term rational emotive behaviour therapy in altering the beliefs, attitudes and behaviours of at-risk adolescents. Retrieved April 20, 2016, from www.thesis.lib.vt.edu.
Garegae, K. G. (2008). The crisis of student discipline in Botswana schools: An impact of culturally conflicting disciplinary strategies. Educational Research and Review, 3(1), 048–055.
Gbenda, B. L. (2008). New perspectives in examination malpractices in Nigeria. Makurdi: Selfers Academic Press.
Gonzalez, J. E., Nelson, J. R., Gutkin, T. B., Saunders, A., Galloway, A., & Craig, S. S. (2004). Rational emotive therapy with children and adolescents: A meta—analysis. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 12(4), 222–235.
Graeber, D. (2001). Towards an anthropological theory of value: The false coin of our dreams. New York: Palgrave.
Greenfield, M. J. (2011). Using REBT to initiate and maintain regular exercise in college age men: A qualitative investigation. Retrieved January 17, 2013, from www.ir.uiowa.edu.
Gyan, E., Baah-Korang, K., Mccarthy, P., & Mccarthy, P. (2015). Causes of indiscipline and measures of improving discipline in senior secondary schools in Ghana: Case study of a senior secondary school in Sunyani. Journal of Education and Practice, 6(11), 19–25.
Hagerty, R. (1995). The crisis of confidence in American education: A blue print for fixing what is wrong and restoring America’s confidence in the public schools. Springfield, Illinois: Thomas.
Halama, P. (2007). Zmyselživota z pohľadupsychológie. Bratislava: Slovak Academic Press.
Hallak, J., & Poisson, M. (2005). Ethics and corruption in education: An overview. Journal of Education for International Development, 1(1). http://equip123.net/JEID/articles/1/1-3.pdf.
Harpe, L. B. (2005). Development of facility concepts within a perception economy. In Proceedings from the European facilities management conference EFMC 2005 in Frankfurt, Germany. Offenbach: VDE Verlag, Berlin.
Ibukun, W. O., & Oyewole, B. K. (2011). Examination malpractice in Nigerian Schools: Environmental influences and management strategies. International Journal of Business & Management Tomorrow, 1(2), 1–7.
Ikonne, C. N. (2012). Value-based education. Paper presented at the First North West Nigeria Union Mission of Seventh-day Adventist Church Teachers Retreat in Benin City, Nigeria. August 31–September 5, 2012.
Jensen, P. A. (2003). Værdiogværdiskabelse i byggeprocessen. MBA report.
Karanja, R., & Bowen, M. (2012). Student indiscipline and academic performance in public secondary schools in Kenya. Kenya: Daystar University Centre for Research and Publications working paper series.
Klerk, J., & Rens, J. (2003). The role of values in school discipline. Koers, 68(4), 353–371.
Knaus, W. J. (1974). Rational emotive education: A manual for elementary school teachers. New York, NY: Institute for Rational Living.
Längle, A. (2002). Smysluplněžít: Aplikovanáexistenciálníanalýza. Cesta: Brno.
Lupu, V., & Iftene, F. (2009). The impact of rational emotive behaviour education on anxiety in teenagers. Journal of Cognitive and Behavioral Psychotherapies, 9, 95–105.
Magaji, S. (2014). Value re-orientation in secondary school education in Nigeria. Knowledge Review, 29(1), 1–7.
Mahfar, M., Aslan, A. S., Noah, S. M., Ahmad, J., & Jaafar, W. M. W. (2014). Effects of rational emotive education module on irrational beliefs and stress among fully residential school students in Malaysia. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 114, 239–243.
Marais, P., & Meier, C. (2010). Disruptive behaviour in the foundation phase of schooling. South African Journal of Education, 30(1), 41–57.
Masitsa, G. (2008). Discipline and disciplinary measures in the Free State township schools: Unresolved problems. Acta Academica, 40(3), 234–270.
Michler. F. B. (2004). Rational emotive behavioural therapy: The basics. Retrieved November 21, 2019 from www.smartrecovery.org.
Moyo, G., Khewu, N. P. D., & Bayaga, A. (2014). Disciplinary practices in schools and principles of alternatives to corporal punishment strategies. South African Journal of Education, 34(1), 1–14.
Nakpodia, E. D. (2010). Teachers’ disciplinary approaches to students’ discipline problems in Nigerian secondary schools. International NGO Journal, 5(6), 144–151.
Njoku, N. C. (2016). Teachers’ perception on the dimensions of moral decadence among secondary school students. Journal of Education and Practice, 7(26), 187–191.
Ntamu, B. A. (2017). Effects of rational emotive behavioural therapy (rebt) on curbing examination malpractice behaviour among public secondary school students in Calabar Municipality. International Journal of Scientific Research in Education, 10(4), 440–450.
Nwobodo, D. N. (2016). Influence of Igbo traditional values as pedagogical tool for the teaching of moral education among secondary school students in Enugu state. Retrieved December 23, 2019 from http://eprints.gouni.edu.ng/293/1/INFLUENCE%20OF%20IGBO%20TRADITIONAL%20VALUES%20AS%20PEDAGOGICAL%20TOOL%20FOR%20THE%20TEACHING%20OF%20MORAL%20EDUCATION%20AMONG%20SECONDARY%20SCHOOL%20STUDENTS%20IN%20ENUGU%20STATE.pdf.
Nwokeoma, B. N., Ede, M. O., Nwosu, N., Ikechukwu-Illomuanya, A., Ogba, F. N., Ugwoezuonu, A. U., et al. (2019). Impact of rational emotive occupational health coaching on work-related stress management among staff of Nigerian Police Force. Medicine, 98(37), e16724.
Nwokeoma, B. N., Ede, M. O., Ugwuanyi, C., Mezieobi, D., Ugwoezuonu, A. U., Amoke, C., et al. (2019). Efficacy of prison-based cognitive behavioral rehabilitation intervention on violent sexual behaviors among sex offenders in Nigerian prisons. Medicine, 98(29), e16103.
Ogba, F. N., Onyishi, C. N., Ede, M. O., Ugwuanyi, C., Nwokeoma, B. N., Victor-Aigbodion, V., et al. (2019). Effectiveness of SPACE model of cognitive behavioral coaching in management of occupational stress in a sample of school administrators in South-East Nigeria. Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive-Behavior Therapy. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10942-019-00334-2.
Okiemute, A. R. (2011). Moral conducts of students in secondary schools in delta state: An assessment of the effects of native culture on discipline, order and control. African Journal of Education and Technology, 1(1), 45–52.
Olaniyan-Shobowale, K. O., Jimoh, A. S., & Shittu, R. (2016). A study of the inculcation of moral values using prose Literature-In-English among senior secondary school students. Journal of Humanities And Social Science, 21(11), 7.
Omoegun, O. M. (2000). Effects of remedial guidance on the academic achievement of Lagos state adolescents in English comprehension. Retrieved November 21, 2019 from www.unilorin.edu.ng.journals/education/ije/june2000volume20.
Omonijo, D. O., Uche, O. O. C., Rotimi, O. A., & Nwadialor, K. L. (2014). Social analysis of moral practice: Challenging education sector in Nigeria. British Journal of Education, Society and Behavioural Science., 4(7), 965–986.
Omote, M. J., Thinguri, R. W., & Moenga, M. E. (2015). A critical analysis of acts of student indiscipline and management strategies employed by school authorities in public high schools in Kenya. International Journal of Education and Research, 3(12), 1–10.
Pande, S. (2012). Life values inventory: An Indian adaptation study. Indian Journal of Applied Research, 2(1), 1–3.
Parihar, R., Parihar, P., & Sharma, D. J. (2018). Decline of ethics and moral values in present scenario: An analysis. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences, 7(9), 1085–1092.
Rahimi, M., & Karkami, F. H. (2015). The role of teachers’ classroom discipline in their teaching effectiveness and students’ language learning motivation and achievement: A path method. Iranian Journal of Language Teaching Research, 3(1), 57–82.
Rokeach, M. (1973). The nature of human values. New York: The Free Press.
Schwartz, S. (1999). A theory of cultural values and some implications for work. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 48, 23–47.
Steyn, S. C., Wolhuter, I. J., Oosthuizen, I. J., & Van Der Walt, J. L. (2003). ’n Internasionaleperspektief op leerderdissipline in skole. South African Journal of Education, 23(3), 225–232.
Ugwu, C. I. (2010). Folklore in Igbo society: A panacea to the threat of home video. African Journal of Local Societies Initiative, 5, 45–51.
Umezinwa, R. N., & Elendu, I. C. (2012). Perception of teachers towards the use of punishment in Sancta Maria primary school Onitsha, Anambra State, Nigeria. Journal of Education and Practice, 3(2), 49–57.
Vaida, S., Kállay, E., & Opre, A. (2008). Counseling in schools: A rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT) Based Intervention. Romanian Association for Cognitive Science, 10(1), 57–69.
Vernon, A. (2004). Rational emotive education. Romanian Journal of Cognitive and Behavioral Psychotherapies, 4(1), 23–37.
Vernon, A. (2006). Thinking, feeling, behaving: An emotional education curriculum for children (2nd ed.). Champaign, IL: Research Press.
Vernon, A. (2007). Application of rational emotive behavior therapy to groups within classrooms and educational settings. In R. W. Christner, J. L. Steward, & A. Freeman (Eds.), Handbook of cognitive-behavior group therapy with children and adolescents: Specific settings and presenting problems (pp. 107–127). New York, NY: Routledge.
Vernon, A. (2009). More what works when with children and adolescents: A handbook of individual counseling techniques. Champaign, IL: Research Press.
Vernon, A., & Bernard, M. E. (2019). Rational emotive behavior education in schools. In M. E. Bernard & W. Dryden (Eds.), Advances in REBT. New York: Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-93118-0_13.
Vyskocilova, J., Prasko, J., Ociskova, M., Sedlackova, Z., & Mozny, P. (2015). Values and values work in cognitive behavioral therapy. Activitas Nervosa Superior Rediviva, 57(1–2), 40–48.
Whisman, A., & Hammer, P. C. (2014). The association between school discipline and mathematics performance: A case for positive discipline approaches. Charleston, WV: West Virginia Department of Education, Division of Teaching and Learning, Office of Research.
Wilde, J. (1999). The efficacy of short term rational emotive education: A follow up evaluation. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy, 13(2), 133–143.
Winkielman, P. (2005). Cognitive psychology. New York: Guilford.
Yaghambe, R. S., & Tshabangu, I. (2013). Disciplinary networks in secondary schools: Policy dimensions and children’s rights in Tanzania. Journal of Studies in Education, 3(4), 42–56. https://doi.org/10.5296/jse.v3i4.4167.
Yahaya, A., Ramli, J., Hashim, S., Ibrahim, M. A., Rahman, R. R. A., & Yahaya, N. (2009). Discipline problems among secondary school students in Johor Bahru, Malaysia. European Journal of Social Sciences, 11(4), 659–679.
Yaroson, M. C. (2004). Strategies for curbing indiscipline in Nigerian secondary schools, African Centre for Contemporary Studies.
Young, J. E., Klosko, J. S., & Weishaar, M. E. (2003). Schema therapy. A practitioner’s guide. Guilford: New York.
Zupan, K. A. (2012). Values, conflicts & value conflict resolution: An investigation of the experiences of educational administrators. Retrieved January 23, 2021 from https://tspace.library.utoronto.ca/bitstream/1807/32858/1/Zupan_Krista_A_201206_EdD_thesis.pdf.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest amongst them.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
About this article
Cite this article
Abiogu, G.C., Ede, M.O., Mezieobi, D.I. et al. Reducing Negative Value System in Students: The Impacts of Rational Emotive Behavioural Education. J Rat-Emo Cognitive-Behav Ther (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10942-021-00387-2
- Rational emotive behavioral education
- Negative value system
- Nigerian students