The Influence of Efficacy Beliefs on Teacher Performance and Student Success: Implications for Student Support Services

  • Jeffrey M. Warren
  • Robyn W. Hale


The influence of teachers’ efficacy beliefs on student achievement is well documented in educational literature. Efficacy beliefs are derived from sources of information teachers obtain from professional experiences. This article provides student support services personnel with an overview of efficacy beliefs and their impact on teachers’ thoughts, emotions, and behaviors. A cognitive behavioral framework, rational emotive behavior therapy, is used to conceptualize ways efficacy beliefs may hinder teacher performance and student success. Implications for student support services and research are provided.


Teacher efficacy Irrational beliefs REBT Student support services Student success 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict on interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


  1. Anderson, R., Green, M., & Lowen, P. (1988). Relationship among teachers’ and students’ thinking skills, sense of efficacy, and student achievement. Alberta Journal of Education, 34, 148–165.Google Scholar
  2. Ashton, P. T., Web, R. B., & Doda, N. (1983). A study of teachers’ sense of efficacy (final report, Executive Summary). Gainsville: University of Florida.Google Scholar
  3. Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological Review, 84, 191–215.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  5. Bandura, A. (1989). Human agency in social cognitive theory. American Psychologist, 44, 1175–1184. doi: 10.1037/0003-066X.44.9.1175.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York, NY: Freeman.Google Scholar
  7. Banks, T., Sapp, M., & Obiakor, F. E. (2013). Understanding B. F. Skinner: Building emotional competence in students with diverse learning needs. Multicultural Learning and Teaching, 9(1), 53–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Banks, T., & Zionts, P. (2009a). Teaching a cognitive behavioral strategy to manage emotions. Intervention in School and Clinic, 44(5), 307–313.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Banks, T., & Zionts, P. (2009b). REBT used with children and adolescents who have emotional and behavioral disorders in educational settings: A review of the literature. Journal of Rational-Emotive and Cognitive-Behavior Therapy, 27(1), 51–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bayraktar, A. (2013). Nature of interactions during teacher-student writing conferences, revisiting the potential effects of self efficacy beliefs. Egitim Arastirmalari-Eurasian Journal of Educational Research, 50, 63–86.Google Scholar
  11. Berman, P., McLaughlin, M., Bass, G., Pauly, E., & Zellman, G. (1977). Federal programs supporting educational change. Vol. VII Factors affecting implementation and continuation (Report No. R-1589/7-HEW). Santa Monica, CA: Rand.Google Scholar
  12. Bernadowski, C., Perry, R., & Del Greco, R. (2013). Improving preservice teachers’ self-efficacy though self learning: Lessons learned. International Journal of Instruction, 6(2), 66–87.Google Scholar
  13. Bernard, M. E. (1990). Taking the stress out of teaching. Melbourne, VIC: Collins-Dove.Google Scholar
  14. Bernard, M. E. (2001). Program achieve: A curriculum of lessons for teaching students how to achieve and develop social-emotional-behavioral well-being (Vol. 1). Oakleigh, VIC: Australian Scholarships Group.Google Scholar
  15. Corey, G. (2013). Theory and practice of counseling and psychotherapy (9th ed.). Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.Google Scholar
  16. David, D. (2014). Rational emotive behavior therapy. In D. S. Dunn (Ed.), Oxford bibliographies in psychology. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  17. Dimmitt, C., Carey, J. C., & Hatch, T. (2007). Evidence-based school counseling: Making a difference with data-driven practices. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.Google Scholar
  18. Dryden, W. (2014). Rational-emotive behaviour therapy: Distinctive features. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  19. Ellis, A. (1962). Reason and emotion in psychotherapy. Secaucas, NJ: Citadel Press.Google Scholar
  20. Ellis, A., & MacLaren, C. (2005). Rational emotive behavior therapy: A therapist’s guide. Atascadero, CA: Impact Publishers.Google Scholar
  21. Festinger, L. (1957). A Theory of cognitive dissonance. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  22. Forman, S. G., & Forman, B. D. (1980). Rational-emotive staff development. Psychology in the Schools, 17(1), 90–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Fowler, L. T. S., Banks, T. I., Anhalt, K., Der, H. H., & Kalis, T. (2008). The association between externalizing behavior problems, teacher-student relationship quality, and academic performance in young urban learners. Behavioral Disorders, 33(3), 167–183.Google Scholar
  24. Haney, J. J., Lumpe, A. T., Czerniak, C. M., & Egan, V. (2002). From beliefs to actions: The beliefs and actions of teachers implementing change. Journal of Science Teacher Education, 13(3), 171–187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Harvey, S. T., Bimler, D., Evans, I. M., Kirkland, J., & Pechtel, P. (2012). Mapping the classroom emotional environment. Teaching and Teacher Education, 28(4), 628–640.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hatch, T. (2014). The use of data in school counseling: Hatching results for students, programs, and the profession. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.Google Scholar
  27. Haverback, H. R. (2010). A fresh perspective on pre-service teacher reading efficacy beliefs. Reading Improvement, 46(4), 214–220.
  28. Huang, X., Liu, M., & Shiomi, K. (2007). An analysis of the relationships between teacher efficacy, teacher self-esteem and orientations to seeking help. Social Behavior and Personality, 35, 707–716.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Kass, E. (2013). “A compliment is all I need”–Teachers telling principals how to promote their staff’s self-efficacy. Alberta Journal of Educational Research, 59(2), 208–225.Google Scholar
  30. Keogh, J., Garvis, S., Pendergast, D., & Diamond, P. (2012). Self-determination: Using agency, efficacy and resilience (AER) to counter novice teachers’ experiences of Intensification. Australian Journal Of Teacher Education, 37(8), 46–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. McCormick, J., & Ayres, P. L. (2009). Teacher self-efficacy and occupational stress: A major Australian curriculum reform revisited. Journal of Educational Administration, 47(4), 463–476. doi: 10.1108/09578230910967446.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Meirovich, G. (2012). Creating a favorable emotional climate in the classroom. The International Journal of Management Education, 10(3), 169–177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Morris, D. B. (2011). Sources of teaching self-efficacy: A scale validation. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A, 71, 3898.Google Scholar
  34. National Association of School Psychologists (2010). Model for comprehensive and integrated school psychological services.
  35. Neenan, M., & Dryden, W. (2011). Counselling in a nutshell series: Rational emotive behaviour therapy in a nutshell (2nd ed.). London: SAGE.Google Scholar
  36. Ozer, E. A., & Akgun, O. E. (2015). The effects of irrational beliefs on academic motivation and academic self-efficacy of candidate teachers of computer and instructional technologies education department. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 197, 1287–1292. doi: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.07.401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Pintrich, P. R. (2002). The role of metacognitive knowledge in learning, teaching, and assessment. Theory Into Practice, 41(4), 219–225.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Poulou, M. (2007). Personal teaching efficacy and its sources: Student teachers’ perceptions. Educational Psychology, 27, 191–218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Prieto-Ursúa, M., & Bermejo-Toro, L (2005). Malestar docente y creencias de autoeficacia del profesor. Revista Española de Psicopedagogía, 232, 493–510.
  40. Raudenbush, S. W., Rowan, B., & Cheong, Y. F. (1992). Contextual effects on the self-perceived efficacy of high school teachers. Sociology of Education, 65, 150–167.
  41. Ross, J., & Bruce, C. (2007). Professional development effects on teacher efficacy: Results of a randomized field trial. The Journal of Educational Research, 101, 50–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Sapp, M. (1996). Irrational beliefs that can lead to academic failure for African American middle school students who are academically at-risk. Journal of Rational-Emotive and Cognitive-Behavior Therapy, 14(2), 123–134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Sapp, M. (2006). The strength-based model for counseling at-risk youths. Counseling Psychologist, 34(1), 108–117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Schmidt, J. J. (2014). Counseling in schools: Comprehensive programs of responsive services for all students (6th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson.Google Scholar
  45. School Social Work Association of America (n.d.) School social workers’ role in addressing students’mental health needs and increasing academic achievement.
  46. Skaalvik, E. M., & Skaalvik, S. (2014). The self-efficacy and perceived autonomy relations with teacher engagement, job satisfaction, and emotional exhaustion. Psychological Reports: Employment Psychology and Marketing, 114(1), 68–77. doi: 10.2466/14.02.PR0.114k14w0.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Smith, V., Collard, P., Nicolson, P., & Bayne, Rowan. (2012). Key concepts in counseling and psychotherapy: A critical A–Z guide to theory. London: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  48. Soodak, L. C., & Podell, D. M. (1993). Teacher efficacy and student problem as factors in special education referral. Journal of Special Education, 27, 66–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Spiegler, M., & Guevremont, D. (2015). Contemorary behavior therapy (6th ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.Google Scholar
  50. Sullivan, L. E. (2009). The SAGE glossary of social and behavioral science. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Takahashi, S. (2011). Co-constructing efficacy: A communities of practice perspective on teachers’ efficacy beliefs. Teaching and Teacher Education, 27(4), 732–741. doi: 10.1016/j.tate.2010.12.002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Tang, S. Y. F. (2003). Challenge and support: The dynamics of student teachers’ professional learning the field experience. School Science and Mathematics Teaching and Teacher Education, 19, 483–498.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Tatar, N., & Buldur, S. (2013). Improving pre-service science teachers’ self-efficacy about the use of alternative assessment: Implication for theory and practice. Journal of Baltic Science Education, 12(4), 452–464.Google Scholar
  54. Tschannen-Moran, M., & Woolfolk Hoy, A. (2001). Teacher efficacy: Capturing an elusive construct. Teaching and Teacher Education, 17, 783–805.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Tschannen-Moran, M., Woolfolk Hoy, A., & Hoy, W. K. (1998). Teacher efficacy: It’s meaning and measure. Review of Educational Research, 68, 202–248.
  56. Vernon, A. (2009). More what works when with children and adolescents: A handbook of individual counseling techniques. Champaign, IL: Research Press.Google Scholar
  57. Walen, S. R., DiGiuseppe, R., & Dryden, W. (1992). A practitioner’s guide to rational emotive therapy (2nd ed.). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  58. Warren, J. M. (2010a). The impact of rational emotive behavior therapy on teacher efficacy and student achievement. Journal of School Counseling, 8(11).
  59. Warren, J. M. (2010b). School counselor system support using mental health interventions. The New York State School Counseling Association Journal, 7, 30–39.Google Scholar
  60. Warren, J. M. (2013a). School counselor consultation: Teachers’ experiences with rational emotive behavior therapy. Journal of Rational-Emotive and Cognitive-Behavior Therapy, 31, 1–15. doi: 10.1007/s10942-011-0139-z.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Warren, J. M. (2013b). Consultation: Enhancing performance and student success. Paper presented at the 6th Annual Southeast Region of NC Drive-in Workshop for Area Counselors. Pembroke, NC: University of North Carolina at Pembroke.Google Scholar
  62. Warren, J. M. (2016). A consensual inquiry of teachers’ responses to classroom scenarios: Implications for school counselors and school counselor educators. Manuscript submitted for publication.Google Scholar
  63. Warren, J. M., & Baker, S. B. (2013). School counselor consultation: Enhancing teacher performance through rational emotive-social behavior consultation. Ideas and Research You Can Use: VISTAS, 2013, 69.Google Scholar
  64. Warren, J. M., & Cottone, R. R. (2015). Detrimental association: An epistemological connection of dysfunction with-in and cross-paradigm. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 37, 138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Warren, J. M., & Dowden, A. R. (2012). Elementary school teachers’ beliefs and emotions: Implications for school counselors and counselor educators. Journal of School Counseling, 10(19).
  66. Warren, J. M., & Gerler, E. R. (2013). Effects of school counselors’ cognitive behavioral consultation on irrational and efficacy beliefs of elementary school teachers. The Professional Counselor, 3(1), 6–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Warren, J. M., & Hale, R. W. (2016). Fostering non-cognitive development of underrepresented students through rational emotive behavior therapy: Recommendations for school counselor practice. The Professional Counselor, 6(1), 89–106.
  68. Warren, J. M., & Robinson, G. (2015). Addressing barriers to effective RTI through school counselor consultation: A social justice approach. Electronic Journal for Inclusive Education, 3(4).
  69. Watson, S. (1992). A study of the effects of teacher efficacy on academic achievement of third- grade students in selected elementary schools in South Carolina. (Doctoral dissertation, South Carolina State College, Orangebury, 1991). Proquest Dissertations and Theses (ATT9230552).Google Scholar
  70. Zembylas, M. (2011). Teaching and teacher emotions: A post-structural perspective. In C. Day & C. K. Lee (Eds.), New understandings of teacher’s work: Emotions and educational change (pp. 31–43). London: Springer Publishing.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Educational Leadership and Counseling, School of EducationUniversity of North Carolina at PembrokePembrokeUSA
  2. 2.Scurlock Elementary SchoolHoke County Schools RaefordUSA

Personalised recommendations