A Cognitive-Behavioral Standpoint on the Perceived Consequences of a Major Seismic Event in Relation to Optimism and Pre-hazard Emotional Distress
- 154 Downloads
The study examined a circumscribed class of cognitions (i.e., dispositional optimism and perceived consequences) in connection to the emotional distress experienced in anticipation of a major seismic event (i.e., pre-hazard emotional distress). Grounded on cognitive-behavioral theory, it was argued that dispositional optimism exerts distal influence on distress, while the perceived consequences of a major seismic event are proximal to distress and, therefore, interpose the optimism-distress relationship. The hypothesis was tested via a cross-sectional study on a sample of 189 volunteers located in areas of high seismic hazard. Participants reported their level of pre-hazard emotional distress, their dispositional optimism, and their perceived consequences of a major seismic hazard. The results showed that there was a partial indirect effect from dispositional optimism to emotional distress via perceived consequences, indirect effect = −0.190, SE = 0.114, 95 % CI [−0.487; −0.021], k2 = 0.051. These findings could inform future prevention programs targeting emotional distress in anticipation of a natural hazard with impact on post-disaster recovery.
KeywordsDistress Seismic hazard Optimism Perceived consequences CBT
This work was supported by a grant of the Romanian National Authority for Scientific Research and Innovation, CNCS—UEFISCDI, project number PN II-RU-TE-2014-4-2481, contract number 293/01/10/2015, coordinated by Dr. Ioana R. Podina.
- Beck, J. S. (1995). Cognitive therapy: Basics and beyond (1st ed.). New York: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
- Brewer, N. T., Chapman, G. B., Gibbons, F. X., Gerrard, M., McCaul, K. D., & Weinstein, N. D. (2007). Meta-analysis of the relationship between risk perception and health behavior: The example of vaccination. Health Psychology, 26(2), 136. doi: 10.1037/0278-6126.96.36.199.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Carver, C. S., Pozo, C., Harris, S. D., Noriega, V., Scheier, M. F., Robinson, D. S., & Clark, K. C. (1993). How coping mediates the effect of optimism on distress: A study of women with early stage breast cancer. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65(2), 375–390. doi: 10.1037/0022-35188.8.131.525.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences. Amsterdam: L. Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
- Ellis, A. (1994). Reason and emotion in psychotherapy (Sub ed.). Secaucus, NJ: Citadel.Google Scholar
- Gerrity, E. T., & Flynn, B. W. (1997). Mental health consequences of disasters. In E. K. Noji (Ed.), The public health consequences of disasters (pp. 101–121). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Hayes, A. F. (2012). Process: A versatile computational tool for observed variable mediation, moderation, and conditional process modeling [White paper].Google Scholar
- Hayes, A. F. (2013). Introduction to mediation, moderation, and conditional process analysis: A regression-based approach. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
- Lindell, M. K., Prater, C. S., & Perry, R. W. (2006). Fundamentals of emergency management. Emmitsburg, MD: Federal Emergency Management Agency Emergency Management Institute. http://www.training.fema.gov/EMIWeb/edu/fem.asp.
- Lowe, S. R., Chan, C. S., & Rhodes, J. E. (2010). Pre-hurricane perceived social support protects against psychological distress: A longitudinal analysis of low-income mothers. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 78(4), 551–560. doi: 10.1037/a0018317.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Mogoaşe, C., Podina, I., Sucală, M., & Dobrean, A. (2013). Evaluating the unique contribution of irrational beliefs and negative interpretations in predicting child anxiety. Implications for cognitive bias modification interventions. Journal of Evidence Based Psychotherapies, 8(2a), 465.Google Scholar
- Opris, D., & Macavei, B. (2007). The profile of emotional distress; Norms for the Romanian population. Journal of Cognitive and Behavioral Psychotherapies, 7(2), 139–158.Google Scholar
- Perry, R. W., & Lindell, M. K. (1978). The psychological consequences of natural disaster: A review of research on American communities. Mass Emergencies, 3(2–3), 105–115.Google Scholar
- Podina, A. V., & Vîslă, P. (2014). Being socially anxious is not enough: Response expectancy mediates the effect of social anxiety on state anxiety in response to a social evaluative threat. Journal of Evidence-Based Psychotherapies, 14(1), 85–94.Google Scholar
- Skolarus, L. E., Lisabeth, L. D., Sanchez, B. N., Smith, M. A., Garcia, N. M., Risser, J. M. H., & Morgenstern, L. B. (2012). The prevalence of spirituality, optimism, depression, and fatalism in a Bi-ethnic stroke population. Journal of Religion and Health, 51(4), 1293–1305. doi: 10.1007/s10943-010-9438-4.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Tobin, G. A. (1997). Natural hazards: Explanation and integration. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
- Turner, R. H., Nigg, J. M., & Paz, D. H. (1986). Waiting for disaster: Earthquake watch in California. California: University of California Press.Google Scholar
- Vîslă, A., Grosse Holtforth, M., & David, D. (2015). Descriptive/inferential cognitive processes and evaluative cognitive processes: Relationships among each other and with emotional distress. Journal of Rational-Emotive and Cognitive-Behavior Therapy, 33(2), 1–12. doi: 10.1007/s10942-015-0207-x.Google Scholar
- Weems, C. F., Pina, A. A., Costa, N. M., Watts, S. E., Taylor, L. K., & Cannon, M. F. (2007). Predisaster trait anxiety and negative affect predict posttraumatic stress in youths after hurricane Katrina. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 75(1), 154–159. doi: 10.1037/0022-006X.75.1.154.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar