Table 7 Logistic regression models estimating propensity of paternal incarceration

From: Chains of Adversity: The Time-Varying Consequences of Paternal Incarceration for Adolescent Behavior

  Any paternal incarceration Paternal incarceration in early childhood Paternal incarceration in middle childhood Paternal incarceration in adolescence
Variable b (SE)   b (SE)   b (SE)   b (SE)  
Race/ethnicity (reference = White [non-Hispanic])             
 Black (non-Hispanic) 0.047 (.137)   0.173 (.154)   0.201 (.264)   − 0.650 (.282) *
 Hispanic − 0.049 (.146)   0.005 (.165)   0.146 (.277)   − 0.163 (.283)  
 Other race (non-Hispanic) 0.117 (.279)   0.080 (.313)   0.456 (.517)   − 0.586 (.603)  
Mother and father a mixed race couple 0.376 (.125) ** 0.390 (.136) ** 0.005 (.247) * 0.322 (.250)  
Mother foreign-born − 0.738 (.213) ** − 0.850 (.250) ^ − 1.181 (.463)   − 0.403 (.424)  
Father foreign-born − 0.253 (.199)   − 0.498 (.245) * 0.079 (.383) * 0.170 (.398)  
Mother age at first birth − 0.039 (.011) ** − 0.040 (.013) ** − 0.042 (.021)   − 0.014 (.023)  
Mother lived with biological parents at age 15 − 0.153 (.092) ^ − 0.091 (.101)   − 0.226 (.177)   − 0.024 (.194)  
Father lived with biological parents at age 15 − 0.327 (.102) ** − 0.283 (.115) * − 0.268 (.191)   − 0.315 (.213)  
Mother cognitive skills 0.011 (.018)   − 0.002 (.020)   0.122 (.034)   0.042 (.039)  
Father cognitive skills − 0.020 (.019)   − 0.040 (.021) ^ 0.018 (.039)   − 0.023 (.042)  
Mother impulsive behaviors 0.253 (.093) ** 0.188 (.100) ^ 0.128 (.176)   0.062 (.211)  
Father impulsive behaviors 0.168 (.096) ^ 0.213 (.099) * 0.036 (.145)   0.072 (.169)  
Father prior incarceration 0.517 (.092) *** 0.336 (.100) ** − 0.263 (.178)   1.215 (.189) ***
Child is boy 0.033 (.082)   0.138 (.090)   − 0.057 (.155)   − 0.146 (.175)  
Child born low birth weight 0.064 (.142)   − 0.182 (.156)   0.425 (.229) ^ 0.102 (.305)  
Child temperament 0.028 (.058)   0.027 (.063)   0.083 (.104)   − 0.041 (.119)  
Mother relationship status (reference = married)             
 Cohabiting 0.238 (.131) ^ 0.391 (.156) * 0.377 (.257)   0.637 (.321) *
 Non-residential romantic relationship 0.577 (.173) ** 0.838 (.192) *** 0.011 (.461)   0.704 (.608)  
 Separated 0.255 (.177)   0.514 (.202) * 0.431 (.314)   0.451 (.402)  
Mother new partner − 0.154 (.149)   − 0.106 (.158)   − 0.340 (.231)   − 0.411 (.243) ^
Father new partner − 0.414 (.163) * − 0.430 (.180) * 0.128 (.273)   − 0.849 (.608)  
Mother relationship quality − 0.145 (.053) ** − 0.166 (.055) *** − 0.038 (.094)   − 0.270 (.121) *
Father relationship quality 0.021 (.051)   0.016 (.053)   − 0.026 (.089)   0.087 (.099)  
Mother number of children in household − 0.026 (.034)   − 0.022 (.037)   − 0.048 (.063)   0.197 (.070) **
Mother parent in household 0.275 (.111) * 0.137 (.121)   0.452 (.242) ^ 0.210 (.299)  
Mother reports domestic violence 0.301 (.197)   0.218 (.202)   0.618 (.409)   − 0.362 (.676)  
Mother education (reference = less than high school)             
 High school diploma or GED − 0.015 (.111)   0.043 (.120)   − 0.269 (.221)   0.202 (.274)  
 Post-secondary education − 0.177 (.122)   0.068 (.132)   − 0.378 (.216) ^ 0.145 (.247)  
Father education (reference = less than high school)             
 High school diploma or GED − 0.336 (.106) ** − 0.335 (.133) ** − 0.039 (.200)   − 0.270 (.228)  
 Post-secondary education − 0.676 (.126) *** − 0.567 (.140) *** − 0.585 (.230) * − 0.745 (.251) **
Mother employment 0.078 (.092)   − 0.043 (.100)   0.232 (.175)   − 0.165 (.213)  
Father employment − 0.465 (.124) *** − 0.607 (.140) *** − 0.275 (.225)   − 0.239 (.241)  
Mother in poverty 0.075 (.102)   0.028 (.111)   0.262 (.193)   0.063 (.237)  
Father in poverty 0.444 (.106) *** 0.482 (.113) *** 0.063 (.242)   − 0.171 (.262)  
Mother material hardship 0.060 (.044)   0.009 (.046) * 0.059 (.041)   0.082 (.066)  
Father material hardship 0.022 (.046)   0.098 (.047)   0.097 (.050) ^ 0.094 (.063)  
Mother parenting stress − 0.105 (.073)   − 0.051 (.074)   − 0.016 (.128)   − 0.047 (.142)  
Father parenting stress − 0.011 (.075)   0.023 (.087)   − 0.030 (.158)   0.027 (.153)  
Mother engagement 0.034 (.032)   0.057 (.034) ^ 0.042 (.072)   0.037 (.164)  
Father engagement − 0.042 (.028)   − 0.054 (.029) ^ 0.075 (.059)   0.165 (.122)  
Mother shared responsibility in parenting − 0.056 (.073) ** − 0.060 (.075)   0.047 (.139)   − 0.115 (.175)  
Mother cooperation in parenting 0.239 (.079)   0.197 (.084) * 0.189 (.139)   0.220 (.141)  
Mother depression 0.007 (.123)   − 0.004 (.132)   0.058 (.234)   − 0.140 (.254)  
Father depression 0.035 (.149)   − 0.045 (.169)   − 0.181 (.324)   − 0.208 (.301)  
Mother overall health 0.041 (.043)   0.038 (.047)   − 0.084 (.082)   0.084 (.098)  
Father overall health 0.108 (.048) * 0.102 (.051) * 0.159 (.099)   − 0.011 (.102)  
Mother illicit drug use − 0.163 (.280)   0.047 (.289)   − 0.164 (.420)   0.001 (.369)  
Father illicit drug use 0.244 (.164)   0.174 (.181)   0.274 (.303)   − 0.048 (.317)  
Mother binge drinking 0.396 (.158) * 0.395 (.167) * 0.299 (.292)   0.247 (.312)  
Father binge drinking 0.092 (.112)   − 0.147 (.120)   − 0.172 (.236)   0.060 (.218)  
Mother perceived social support − 0.016 (.027)   − 0.031 (.029)   0.029 (.049)   0.010 (.060)  
Father perceived social support − 0.016 (.029)   0.001 (.030)   0.067 (.054)   − 0.035 (.063)  
Mother residential move 0.167 (.107)   0.172 (.114)   − 0.043 (.188)   0.288 (.214)  
Father residential move − 0.029 (.109)   0.000 (.124)   0.098 (.199)   0.158 (.248)  
Mother neighborhood disadvantage − 0.001 (.021)   − 0.012 (.022)   0.042 (.039)   0.004 (.045)  
Father neighborhood disadvantage 0.003 (.021)   − 0.003 (.022)   − 0.038 (.042)   − 0.003 (.045)  
Mother incarcerated − 0.136 (.477)   0.380 (.470)   0.012 (.282)   0.212 (.297)  
Constant − 0.851    − 1.408    − 3.804    − 3.563   
Log likelihood − 1,834    − 1,576    − 639    − 511   
N 3416    3416    2569    2363   
  1. Coefficients and standard errors are pooled across multiply imputed data sets. ^ p < .10, * p < .05, ** p < .01, *** p < .001