Table 6 Sample characteristics, by time-varying paternal incarceration

From: Chains of Adversity: The Time-Varying Consequences of Paternal Incarceration for Adolescent Behavior

  Paternal incarceration in early childhood (ages 1 to 5) Paternal incarceration in middle childhood (ages 5 to 9) Paternal incarceration in adolescence (ages 9 to 15)
  Yes No   Yes No   Yes No  
Time-invariant characteristics
Mother race/ethnicity
 White (non-Hispanic) 14.6%   24.2%   *** 15.8%   24.9%   ** 23.7%   25.0%   
 Black (non-Hispanic) 62.9%   45.8%   *** 60.2%   44.5%   *** 45.1%   44.5%   
 Hispanic 19.9%   26.2%   *** 21.1%   26.6%   ^ 28.9%   26.5%   
 Other race (non-Hispanic) 2.6%   3.9%   ^ 2.9%   3.9%    2.3%   4.1%   
Mother and father a mixed race couple 17.4%   14.0%   * 14.1%   14.0%    19.1%   13.6%   *
Mother foreign-born 5.0%   16.1%   *** 4.9%   17.1%   *** 9.8%   17.6%   **
Father foreign-born 6.4%   17.5%   *** 9.0%   18.2%   ** 13.4%   18.6%   ^
Mother age at first birth 19.680 (3.845) 22.182 (5.482) *** 20.020 (4.113) 22.371 (5.546) *** 20.317 (4.128) 22.533 (5.611) ***
Mother lived with biological parents at age 15 30.9%   45.5%   *** 31.1%   46.7%   *** 36.9%   47.5%   **
Father lived with biological parents at age 15 30.6%   48.2%   *** 33.6%   49.4%   *** 36.0%   50.5%   ***
Mother cognitive skills 6.534 (2.541) 6.880 (2.698) ** 6.696 (2.468) 6.897 (2.717)   6.867 (2.433) 6.899 (2.738)  
Father cognitive skills 6.169 (2.608) 6.620 (2.789) *** 6.594 (2.586) 6.623 (2.805)   6.345 (2.693) 6.645 (2.813) ^
Mother impulsive behaviors 1.604 (.513) 1.498 (.469) *** 1.572 (.481) 1.491 (.468) * 1.565 (.478) 1.485 (.466) *
Father impulsive behaviors 2.200 (.715) 1.970 (.673) *** 2.028 (.705) 1.965 (.670)   2.145 (.735) 1.950 (.663) **
Father prior incarceration 50.1%   26.0%   *** 30.6%   25.6%    60.7%   22.9%   ***
Child is boy 53.2%   50.9%    48.5%   51.1%    47.4%   51.4%   
Child born low birth weight 10.0%   9.0%    15.0%   8.5%   ** 11.0%   8.3%   
Child temperament 3.339 (.790) 3.428 (.764) * 3.368 (.776) 3.433 (.763)   3.363 (.762) 3.439 (.763)  
Child primary caregiver                
 Mother 88.0%   88.1%    87.9%   88.2%    93.6%   87.7%   *
 Father 5.0%   7.7%   ** 6.8%   7.8%    6.4%   7.9%   
 Other 7.1%   4.2%   ** 5.3%   4.1%    0.0%   4.4%   **
Child age 15.571 (.732) 15.591 (.772)   15.529 (.659) 15.596 (.781)   15.630 (.769) 15.594 (.782)  
Time-varying characteristics                
Mother relationship status                
 Married 10.9%   35.6%   *** 22.3%   40.2%   *** 19.5%   40.6%   ***
 Cohabiting 26.7%   27.0%    19.1%   13.4%   * 14.5%   9.2%   *
 Non-residential romantic relationship 16.1%   8.1%   *** 3.5%   3.0%    2.9%   1.5%   ^
 Separated 46.4%   29.3%   *** 55.1%   43.5%   ** 63.1%   48.6%   ***
Mother new partner 16.6%   10.1%   *** 24.2%   22.3%    32.8%   28.1%   ^
Father new partner 14.2%   11.4%    31.0%   24.6%    2.9%   5.6%   
Mother relationship quality 2.819 (1.386) 3.379 (1.420) *** 2.964 (1.350) 3.168 (1.461) * 2.540 (1.300) 3.074 (1.467) ***
Father relationship quality 3.269 (1.297) 3.608 (1.265) *** 3.313 (1.276) 3.502 (1.310) * 3.041 (1.356) 3.314 (1.448) *
Mother number of children in household 2.441 (1.370) 2.239 (1.282) *** 2.588 (1.322) 2.460 (1.277)   3.051 (1.500) 2.561 (1.263) ***
Mother parent in household 24.6%   16.9%   *** 14.0%   9.8%   * 11.1%   9.0%   
Mother reports domestic violence 7.4%   3.6%   *** 4.4%   2.6%    1.7%   1.6%   
Mother education                
 Less than high school 37.4%   26.6%   *** 32.5%   22.4%   ** 26.0%   19.6%   *
 High school diploma or GED 30.7%   27.5%   ^ 24.8%   21.9%    21.5%   18.6%   
 Post-secondary education 31.9%   45.9%   *** 42.7%   55.6%   *** 52.5%   61.8%   *
Father education                
 Less than high school 41.9%   26.1%   *** 31.3%   23.6%   * 36.0%   20.7%   ***
 High school diploma or GED 39.0%   34.6%   * 40.7%   30.0%   ** 34.7%   27.3%   *
 Post-secondary education 19.0%   39.3%   *** 28.0%   46.4%   *** 29.3%   52.0%   ***
Mother employment 50.4%   56.3%   ** 61.0%   60.8%    54.4%   63.3%   *
Father employment 57.7%   81.8%   *** 72.9%   83.1%   ** 62.2%   77.7%   ***
Mother in poverty 56.3%   37.4%   *** 46.7%   31.8%   *** 48.0%   30.7%   ***
Father in poverty 45.7%   24.7%   *** 27.9%   20.0%   ^ 34.9%   21.8%   ***
Mother material hardship 1.578 (1.827) 1.045 (1.544) *** 2.448 (2.281) 1.823 (2.113) *** 2.030 (2.000) 1.264 (1.730) ***
Father material hardship 1.437 (1.789) 0.911 (1.497) *** 2.192 (2.057) 1.547 (1.948) *** 2.102 (2.294) 1.117 (1.790) ***
Mother parenting stress 2.253 (.675) 2.183 (.668) ** 2.162 (.694) 2.151 (.663)   2.070 (.713) 1.988 (.673)  
Father parenting stress 2.175 (.709) 2.075 (.683) *** 2.047 (.765) 2.040 (.713)   2.009 (.733) 1.870 (.696) *
Mother engagement 4.870 (1.494) 4.844 (1.515)   4.698 (1.248) 4.603 (1.169)   2.734 (.639) 2.689 (.595)  
Father engagement 3.008 (2.231) 3.598 (2.086) *** 3.445 (1.860) 3.257 (1.739)   1.575 (1.167) 1.694 (1.164)  
Mother shared responsibility in parenting 2.577 (1.174) 2.938 (1.091) *** 2.558 (1.179) 2.661 (1.181)   2.132 (1.117) 2.517 (1.197) ***
Mother cooperation in parenting 3.190 (.962) 3.396 (.911) *** 3.209 (.953) 3.206 (1.051)   2.811 (1.114) 3.078 (1.125) **
Mother depression 19.2%   14.4%   ** 18.8%   15.4%    19.1%   15.3%   
Father depression 16.3%   10.9%   *** 10.9%   10.3%    20.8%   13.8%   ***
Mother overall health 3.711 (1.075) 3.814 (1.033) * 3.532 (1.065) 3.706 (1.017) * 3.499 (1.057) 3.621 (1.027)  
Father overall health 3.889 (1.063) 3.892 (1.033)   3.876 (1.025) 3.812 (1.017)   3.492 (1.102) 3.737 (1.046) **
Mother illicit drug use 3.4%   1.8%   ** 3.9%   3.3%    8.3%   5.5%   
Father illicit drug use 11.9%   7.2%   *** 12.8%   7.6%   ** 15.5%   10.0%   **
Mother binge drinking 10.0%   6.0%   *** 9.2%   5.7%   * 12.9%   7.2%   ***
Father binge drinking 25.8%   28.3%   ^ 19.8%   21.6%    31.4%   26.5%   ^
Mother perceived social support 3.583 (1.789) 4.186 (1.799) *** 3.886 (1.763) 4.268 (1.846) ** 3.837 (1.792) 4.353 (1.758) ***
Father perceived social support 3.924 (1.823) 4.433 (1.802) *** 4.245 (1.836) 4.474 (1.877)   3.798 (1.918) 4.432 (1.828) ***
Mother residential move 55.5%   43.3%   *** 52.2%   46.4%    69.2%   52.8%   ***
Father residential move 52.3%   43.1%   *** 51.8%   44.6%   ^ 49.2%   33.9%   ***
Mother neighborhood disadvantage 0.755 (3.349) − 0.239 (3.540) *** 0.818 (3.210) − 0.298 (3.074) *** 0.238 (2.973) − 0.344 (3.080) *
Father neighborhood disadvantage 0.945 (3.342) − 0.079 (3.473) *** 0.702 (3.125) − 0.093 (3.113) ** 0.582 (2.781) − 0.105 (3.145) *
Mother incarcerated 1.5%   0.4%   ** 9.7%   6.6%   ^ 11.9%   7.0%   *
N 847 2569   206 2363   173 2190  
  1. Time-invariant characteristics measured at baseline (unless otherwise noted in Table 1). Time-varying characteristics for paternal incarceration in early childhood measured at the 1-year survey, for paternal incarceration in middle childhood measured at the 5-year survey, and for paternal incarceration in adolescence measured at the 9-year survey. Estimates of descriptive statistics by paternal incarceration in middle childhood exclude observations exposed to paternal incarceration in early childhood. Estimates of descriptive statistics by paternal incarceration in adolescence exclude observations exposed to paternal incarceration in early childhood or middle childhood. ^ p < .10, * p < .05, ** p < .01, *** p < .001