Journal of Quantitative Criminology

, Volume 22, Issue 4, pp 319–340 | Cite as

Self-control, Victimization, and their Influence on Risky Lifestyles: A Longitudinal Analysis Using Panel Data

  • Christopher J. Schreck
  • Eric A. Stewart
  • Bonnie S. Fisher
Original Paper


This research expands past investigations into the influence of low self-control as a risk factor for criminal victimization. Specifically, we consider two questions: (1) whether low self-control at one point in time can predict future victimization, and (2) whether victims alter lifestyle choices (like their own delinquency and contact with delinquent peers) in response to their earlier victimization. We answered these questions using three waves of adolescent panel data from the evaluation of the Gang Resistance Education and Training program. Our results support the predictions of self-control theory, showing that low self-control measured at an earlier time is associated with later victimization, even after controlling for past victimization, delinquency, social bonds, and delinquent peer contact. Likewise, self-control appears to influence the relationship between earlier victimization and later lifestyles.


Victimization Lifestyles Self-control Panel design Routine activities 



The data for this study were originally collected by Finn Esbensen and made available through the Inter-University Consortium for Political and Social Research. Neither Esbensen nor ICPSR bear any responsibility for the analyses and results presented here. The authors gratefully acknowledge Alex Piquero, Donna Bishop, Pamela Wilcox, and the anonymous referees for their constructive comments.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Christopher J. Schreck
    • 1
  • Eric A. Stewart
    • 2
  • Bonnie S. Fisher
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Criminal JusticeRochester Institute of TechnologyRochesterUSA
  2. 2.Department of Criminology & Criminal JusticeUniversity of Missouri at St. LouisSt. LouisUSA
  3. 3.Division of Criminal JusticeUniversity of CincinnatiCincinnatiUSA

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