Advertisement

Journal of Psycholinguistic Research

, Volume 45, Issue 1, pp 1–28 | Cite as

The Separability of Morphological Processes from Semantic Meaning and Syntactic Class in Production of Single Words: Evidence from the Hebrew Root Morpheme

  • Avital Deutsch
Article

Abstract

In the present study we investigated to what extent the morphological facilitation effect induced by the derivational root morpheme in Hebrew is independent of semantic meaning and grammatical information of the part of speech involved. Using the picture–word interference paradigm with auditorily presented distractors, Experiment 1 compared the facilitation effect induced by semantically transparent versus semantically opaque morphologically related distractor words (i.e., a shared root) on the production latency of bare nouns. The results revealed almost the same amount of facilitation for both relatedness conditions. These findings accord with the results of the few studies that have addressed this issue in production in Indo-European languages, as well as previous studies in written word perception in Hebrew. Experiment 2 compared the root’s facilitation effect, induced by morphologically related nominal versus verbal distractors, on the production latency of bare nouns. The results revealed a facilitation effect of similar size induced by the shared root, regardless of the distractor’s part of speech. It is suggested that the principle that governs lexical organization at the level of morphology, at least for Hebrew roots, is form-driven and independent of semantic meaning. This principle of organization crosses the linguistic domains of production and written word perception, as well as grammatical organization according to part of speech.

Keywords

Morphology and production Picture–word-interference paradigm (PWI) Morphological processes in producing Hebrew words Syntactic class in production 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This research was supported by a grant from the Israeli Science Foundation (#179/09) to Avital Deutsch. I thank Roni Pener-Tessler, Tamar Malinovitch, Dana Zahar and Yaara Lador for their extensive help in constructing the materials and excellent assistance in running the experiments.

References

  1. Abdel Rahman, R. A., & Aristei, S. (2010). Now you see it.. and now again: Semantic interference reflects lexical competition in speech production with and without articulation. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 17, 657–661.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Abdel Rahman, R. A., & Melinger, A. (2009). Semantic context effects in language production: A swinging lexical network proposal and review. Language and Cognitive Processes, 24(5), 713–734.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Aronoff, M. (1994). Morphology by itself. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  4. Bentin, S., & Feldman, L. B. (1990). The contribution of morphological and semantic relatedness to repetition priming at short and long lags: Evidence from Hebrew. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 42A, 693–711.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bloem, I., & La Heij, W. (2003). Semantic facilitation and semantic interference in word translation: Implications for models of lexical access in language production. Journal of Memory and Language, 48, 468–488.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bonin, P., & Fayol, M. (2002). Frequency effects in the written and spoken production of homophonic picture names. European Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 14, 289–313.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Boudelaa, S., & Marslen-Wilson, W. (2005). Discontinuous morphology in time: Incremental masked priming in Arabic. Language and Cognitive Processes, 20, 207–260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Burani, C., & Laudana, A. (1992). Units of representation of derived words in the lexicon. In R. Frost & L. Katz (Eds.), Advances in Psychology: Orthography, Phonology, Morphology, and Meaning (pp. 27–44). Amsterdam: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  9. Caramazza, A. (1997). How many levels of processing are there in lexical access? Cognitive Neuropsychology, 14, 177–208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Caramazza, A., Miozzo, M., Costa, A., & Bi, Y. (2001). The whole-word frequency effect: Implications for the representations of homophones. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 27, 1430–1450.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Costa, A., Alarion, F. X., & Caramazza, A. (2005). On the categorical nature of the semantic interference effect in the picture–word interference paradigm. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 12, 125–131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Damian, M. F., & Martin, R. C. (1999). Semantic and phonological codes interact in single word production. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 25, 345–361.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Dell, G. S. (1986). A spreading-activation theory of retrieval in sentence production. Psychological Review, 93, 283–321.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Dell, G. S., & O’Seaghdha, P. G. (1992). Stages of lexical access in language production. Cognition, 42, 287–314.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Deutsch, A., & Frost, R. (2003). Lexical organization and lexical access in a non-concatenated morphology: Mapping the mental lexicon. In J. Shimron (Ed.), Language processing and acquisition in languages of semitic, root based, morphology (pp. 165–186). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Deutsch, A., Frost, R., & Forster, K. (1998). Verbs and nouns are organized and accessed differently in the mental lexicon: Evidence from Hebrew. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 24, 1238–1255.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Deutsch, A., & Meir, A. (2011). The role of the root morpheme in mediating word production in Hebrew. Language and Cognitive Processes, 26, 716–744.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Dohmes, P., Zwitserlood, P., & Bölte, J. (2004). The impact of semantic transparency of morphologically complex words on picture naming. Brain and Language, 90, 203–212.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Feldman, L. B. (2000). Are morphological effects distinguishable from the effects of shared meaning and shared form? Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 26, 1431–1444.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Frost, R. (2012). Towards a universal model of reading. Behavioural and Brain Sciences, 35, 263–279.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Frost, R., Deutsch, A., Gilboa, O., Tannenbaum, M., & Marslen-Wilson, W. (2000). Morphological priming: Dissociation of phonological, semantic and morphological factors. Memory & Cognition, 28, 1277–1288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Frost, R., Forster, K. I., & Deutsch, A. (1997). What can we learn from the morphology of Hebrew? A masked priming investigation of morphological representation. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 23, 829–856.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Frost, R., Kugler, T., Deutsch, A., & Forster, K. I. (2005). Orthographic structure versus morphological structure: Principles of lexical organization in a given language. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 31, 1293–1326.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Garrett, M. F. (1988). Processes in language production. In F. J. Newmeyer (Ed.), Linguistics: The Cambridge survey (Vol. 3). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  25. Gaskell, M. G., & Marslen-Wilson, W. D. (1997). Integrating form and meaning: A distributed model of speech perception. Language and Cognitive Processes, 12, 613–656.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Gumnior, H., Bölte, J., & Zwitserlood, P. (2006). A chatterbox is a box: Morphology in German word production. Language and Cognitive Processes, 21, 920–944.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Humphreys, G. W., Lloyd-Jones, T. J., & Fias, W. (1995). Semantic interference effects on naming using a postcue procedure: Tapping the links between semantics and phonology with pictures and words. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition, 21, 961–980.Google Scholar
  28. Janssen, N., Bi, Y., & Carammaza, A. (2008). A tale of two frequencies: Determining the speed of lexical access for Mandarin Chinese and English compounds. Language and Cognitive Processes, 23, 1191–1223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Janssen, N., Melinger, A., Mahon, B. Z., Finkbeiner, M., & Caramazza, A. (2010). The word class effect in picture–word interference paradigm. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology., 63, 1233–1246.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Jescheniak, J. D., & Schriefers, H. (2001). Priming effects from phonologically related distractors in picture–word interference. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 54, 371–382.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Koester, D., & Schiller, N. O. (2008). Morphological priming in overt language production: Electrophysiological evidence from Dutch. NeuroImage, 42, 1622–1630.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Kolan, L., Leikin, M., & Zwitzerlood, P. (2011). Morphological processing and lexical access in speech production in Hebrew: Evidence from picture–word interference. Journal of Memory and Language, 65, 286–298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Levelt, W. J. M., Roelofs, A., & Meyer, A. S. (1999). A theory of lexical access in speech production. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 22, 1–38.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Lüttmann, H., Zwitserlood, P., & Bölte, J. (2011a). Sharing morphemes without sharing meaning: Production and comprehension of German verbs in the context of morphological relatives. Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, 65, 173–191.Google Scholar
  35. Lüttmann, H., Zwitserlood, P., Böhl, A., & Bölte, J. (2011b). Evidence for morphological composition at the form level in speech production. Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 2011(23), 818–836.Google Scholar
  36. Lupker, S. J. (1979). The semantic nature of response competition in the picture–word interference task. Memory & Cognition, 7, 485–495.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Luzzatti, C., Raggi, R., Zonca, G., Pistarini, C., Contardi, A., & Pinna, G. D. (2002). Verb–noun double dissociation in aphasic lexical impairment: The role of word frequency and imageability. Brain and Language, 81, 432–444.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Mahon, B. Z., Costa, A., Peterson, R., Vargas, K. A., & Caramazza, A. (2007). Lexical selection is not by competition: A reinterpretation of semnatic interference and facilitation effects in the picture-word interference paradigm. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition, 33, 503–535.Google Scholar
  39. Marslen-Wilson, W., Tyler, L. K., Waksler, R., & Older, L. (1994). Morphology and meaning in the English mental lexicon. Psychological Review, 101, 3–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Pechmann, T., Garrett, M., & Zerbst, D. (2004). The time course of recovery for grammatical category information during lexical processing for syntactic construction. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 30, 723–728.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Pechmann, T., & Zerbst, D. (2002). The activation of word class information during speech production. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 28, 233–243.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Plaut, D., & Gonnerman, L. M. (2000). Are non-semantic morphological effects incompatible with a distributed connectionist approach to lexical processing? Language and Cognitive Processes, 15, 445–486.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Rapp, B., & Goldrick, M. (2000). Discreteness and interactivity in spoken word production. Psychological Review, 107, 460–499.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Roelofs, A. (1996). Serial order in planning the production of successive morphemes of a word. Journal of Memory and Language, 35, 854–876.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Roelofs, A. (1997). The WEAVER model of word-form encoding in speech production. Cognition, 64, 2490–284.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Roelofs, A., & Baayen, H. (2002). Morphology by itself in planning the production of spoken words. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 9, 132–138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Schriefers, H., & Jescheniak, J. D. (1999). Representation and processing of grammatical gender in language production: A review. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, 28, 575–6000.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Schriefers, H., Meyer, A. S., & Levelt, W. J. M. (1990). Exploring the time course of lexical access in language production: Picture–word interference studies. Journal of Memory and Language, 29, 86–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Starreveld, P. A., & La Heij, W. (1996). Time-course analysis of semantic and orthographic context effects in picture-naming. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 22, 896–918.Google Scholar
  50. Velan, H., Deutsch, A., & Frost, R. (2013). The flexibility of letter position flexibility: Evidence from eye movements in reading Hebrew. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human, Perception and Performance, 39, 1143–1152.Google Scholar
  51. Velan, H., & Frost, R. (2007). Cambridge University versus Hebrew University: The impact of letter transposition on reading English and Hebrew. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 14, 913–918.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Velan, H., & Frost, R. (2009). Letter-transposition effects are not universal: The impact of transposing letters in Hebrew. Journal of Memory and Language, 61, 285–302.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Velan, H., & Frost, R. (2011). Words with and without internal structure: What determines the nature of orthographic and morphological processing? Cognition, 118, 141–156.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Vigliocco, G., Vinson, D. P., & siri, S. (2005). Semantic similarity and grammatical class in naming actions. Cognition, 94, B91–B100.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Zwitserlood, P., Bölte, J., & Dohmes, P. (2000). Morphological effects on speech production: Evidence from picture naming. Language and Cognitive Processes, 15, 563–592.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Zwitserlood, P., Bölte, J., & Dohmes, P. (2002). Where and how morphologically complex words interplay with naming pictures. Brain and Language, 81, 358–367.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.The School of EducationThe Hebrew University of JerusalemJerusalemIsrael

Personalised recommendations