Advertisement

Journal of Psycholinguistic Research

, Volume 39, Issue 3, pp 235–242 | Cite as

Semantic and Phonemic Verbal Fluency in Blinds

  • Vahid Nejati
  • Anoosh Asadi
Article

Abstract

A person who has suffered the total loss of a sensory system has, indirectly, suffered a brain lesion. Semantic and phonologic verbal fluency are used for evaluation of executive function and language. The aim of this study is evaluation and comparison of phonemic and semantic verbal fluency in acquired blinds. We compare 137 blinds and 124 sighted people in verbal fluency task. The tasks were phonemic and semantic verbal fluency test that subjects should be generate as many word as possible in a limited amount of time for a given letter (Phonemic fluency) or a given category (Semantic fluency). Independent T Test was used to comparing blind with sighted. Findings show significant difference between two groups so that that sighted subjects have higher performance in semantic verbal fluency task (p = 0.000). Comparing sighted and blind subjects in phonemic verbal fluency task shows performance in sighted subjects (p = 0.000). Based on this study blinds have lower performance in semantic and phonemic verbal fluency task as a executive function of frontal lobe.

Keywords

Blinds Semantic verbal fluency Phonemic verbal fluency 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Amedi A., Floel A., Knecht S., Zohary E., Cohen L. G. (2004) Transcranial magnetic stimulation of the occipital pole interferes with verbal processing in blind subjects. Nature Neuroscience 7: 1266–1270CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Amedi A., Raz N., Pianka P., Malach R., Zohary E. (2003) Early ‘visual’ cortex activation correlates with superior verbal memory performance in the blind. Nature Neuroscience 6: 758–766CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Burton H., Snyder A. Z., Conturo T. E., Akbudak E., Ollinger J. M., Raichle M. E. (2002) Adaptive changes in early and late blind: A fMRI study of Braille reading. Journal of Neurophysiology 87: 589–607PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Burton H. (2003) Visual cortex activity in early and late blind people. Journal of Neuroscience 23: 4005–4011PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Busse A. (2002) Adaptation of dementia screening for vision-impaired older persons: Administration of the mini-mental state examination (MMSE). Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 55: 909–915CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Cabeza R., Nyberg L. (2000) Imaging cognition II: An empirical review of 275 PET and fMRI studies. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 12: 1–47CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Chomsky N. (1980) Rules and Representations. Columbia University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  8. Dickins D. W., Singh K. D., Roberts N., Burns P., Downes J. J., Jimmieson P., Bentall R. P. (2001) An fMRI study of stimulus equivalence. NeuroReport 12: 405–411CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Doucet M. E., Guillemot J. P., Lassonde M., Gagne J. P., Leclerc C., Lepore F. (2005) Blind subjects process auditory spectral cues more efficiently than sighted individuals. Experimental Brain Research 160: 194–202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Gaillard W. D., Hertz-Pannier L., Mott S. H., Barnett A. S., LeBihan D., Theodore W. H. (2000) Functional anatomy of cognitive development: fMRI of verbal fluency in children and adults. Neurology 54: 180–185PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Goldreich D., Kanics I. M. (2003) Tactile acuity is enhanced in blindness. Journal of Neuroscience 23: 3439–3445PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Gougoux F., Zatorre R. J., Lassonde M., Voss P., Lepore F. (2005) A functional neuroimaging study of sound localization: Visual cortex activity performance in early blind individuals. PLoS Biology 3: 27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Gougoux F., Lepore F., Lassonde M., Voss P., Zatorre R. J., Belin P (2004) Neuropsychology: Pitch discrimination in the early blind. Nature 430: 309CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Grant A. C., Thiagarajah M. C., Sathian K. (2000) Tactile perception in blind Braille readers: A psychophysical study of acuity and hyperacuity using gratings and dot patterns. Perception & Psychophysics 62: 301–312Google Scholar
  15. Hamilton R. H., Pascual-Leone A., Schlaug G. (2004) Absolute pitch in blind musicians. NeuroReport 15: 803–806CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Hotting K., Röder B. (2004) Hearing cheats touch, but less in congenitally blind than in sighted individuals. Psychological Science 15: 60–64CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Korten A. E. (1997) A prospective study of cognitive function in the elderly. Psychological Medicine 27: 9191–9930CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Kujala T., Alho K., Huotilainen M., Ilmoniemi R.J., Lehtokoski A., Leinonen A. et al (1997) Electrophysiological evidence for cross-modal plasticity in humans with early- and late-onset blindness. Psychophysiology 34: 213–216CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Kujala, T., Alho, K., Kekoni, J., Hamalainen, H., Reinikainen K., Salonen O. (1995) Auditory and somatosensory event-related brain potentials in early blind humans. Experimental Brain Research 104: 519–526CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Leinonen A., Rinne T., Salonen O., Sinkkonen J., Standertskjold-Nordenstam C. G., Näätänen R. (1997) Electrophysiological evidence for cross-modal plasticity in humans with early and late-onset blindness. Psychophysiology 34: 213–216CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Lezak M. D. (1995) Neuropsychological Assessment 3 edn. New York, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  22. Linn R. T. (1995) The dpreclinical caseT of probable Alzheimer’s disease A-13 year prospective study of the Framingham cohort. Archives of Neurology 52: 485–490PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Liotti M., Ryder K., Woldorff M.G. (1998) Auditory attention in the congenitally blind: Where, when and what gets reorganized?. NeuroReport 9: 1007–1012CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Martin A., Wiggs C. L., Lalonde F., Mack C. (1994) Word retrieval to letter and semantic sues: A double association in normal subjects using interference tasks. Neuropsychologia 32: 1487–1494CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Merabet L., Rizzo J., Amedi A., Somers D., Pascual-Leone A. (2005) What blindness can tell us about seeing again: Merging neuroplasticity and neuroprostheses. Nature Reviews Neuroscience 6: 71–77CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Muchnik C., Efrati M., Nemeth E., Malin M., Hildesheimer M. (1991) Central auditory skills in blind and sighted subjects. Scandinavian Audiology 20: 19–23PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Noppeney U., Friston K. J., Price C. J. (2003) Effects of visual deprivation on the organization of the semantic system. Brain 126: 1620–1627CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Press, D. Z., Casement, M. D., Moo, L. R., & Alsop, D. C. (2004). Imaging phonological and semantic networks with fMRI. Soc. Neurosci. Abstr. Viewer/Itinerary Planner. No. 80.13.Google Scholar
  29. Ravnkilde B., Videbech P., Rosenberg R., Gjedde A., Gade A. (2002) Putative tests of frontal lobe function: A PET-study of brain activation during Stroop’s test and verbal fluency. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology 24: 534–547CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Reischies F. M., Geiselmann B. (1997) Age-related cognitive decline and vision impairment affecting the detection of dementia syndrome in old age. British Journal of Psychiatry 171: 449–451CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Riedel-Heller S.G., Busse A., Anfermeyer M.C. (1997) Are cognitively impaired individuals adequately represented in community surveys? Recruitment challenges and strategies to facilitate participation in community surveys of older adults. A review. European Journal of Epidemiology, 16: 827–835CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Roder B., Stock O., Bien S., Neville H., Rosler F. (2002) Speech processing activates visual cortex in congenitally blind humans. The European Journal of Neuroscience 16: 930–936CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Röder B., Rösler F., Hennighausen E., Nacker F. (1996) Event related potentials during auditory and somatosensory discrimination in sighted and blind human subjects. Brain Research Cognitive Brain Research 4: 77–93PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Röder B., Rösler F., Neville H. J. (1999a) Effects of interstimulus interval on auditory event-related potentials in congenitally blind and normally sighted humans. Neuroscience letters 264: 53–56CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Röder B., Rösler F., Spence C. (2004) Early vision impairs tactile perception in the blind. Current Biology 14: 121–124PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Röder B., Teder-Salejarvi W., Sterr A., Rösler F., Hillyard S. A., Neville H. J. (1999b) Improved auditory spatial tuning in blind humans. Nature 400: 162–166CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Sterr A., Muller M. M., Elbert T., Rockstroh B., Pantev C., Taub E. (1998) Perceptual correlates of changes in cortical representation of fingers in blind multifinger Braille readers. Journal of Neuroscience 18: 4417–4423PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Stevens A. A., Weaver K. (2005) Auditory perceptual consolidation in early-onset blindness. Neuropsychologia 43: 1901–1910CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Theoret H., Merabet L., Pascual-Leone A. (2004) Behavioral and neuroplastic changes in the blind: Evidence for functionally relevant cross-modal interactions. Journal of Physiology, Paris 98(1-3): 221–233CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Uhlmann R. F., Pearlman R. A. (1991) Perceived quality of life and preferences for life-sustaining treatment in older adults. Archives of Internal Medicine 151: 495–497CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Van Boven R., Hamilton R., Kaufman T., Keenan J. P., Pascual-Leone A. (2000) Tactile spatial resolution in blind Braille readers. Neurology 54: 2030–2046Google Scholar
  42. Voss P., Lassonde M., Gougoux F., Fortin M., Guillemot J. P., Lepore F. (2004) Early- and late-onset blind individuals show supra-normal auditory abilities in far-space. Current Biology 14: 1734–1738CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Warren D. H. (1994) Blindness and children: An individual differences approach. Cambridge University Press, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Yabe T., Kaga K. (2005) Sound lateralization test in adolescent blind individuals. NeuroReport 16: 939–942CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Cognitive neuroscience, Psychology DepartmentShahid Beheshti UniversityTehranIran
  2. 2.Raftar Cognitive Neuroscience Research CenterTehranIran

Personalised recommendations