The Journal of Primary Prevention

, Volume 36, Issue 1, pp 65–70 | Cite as

Parenting in 2 Worlds: Pilot Results From a Culturally Adapted Parenting Program for Urban American Indians

  • Stephen Kulis
  • Stephanie L. Ayers
  • Tahnee Baker
Brief Report


This study reports the implementation and feasibility of a culturally adapted parenting curriculum, Parenting in 2 Worlds (P2W), which we designed specifically for urban American Indian families by means of community-based participatory research and then pilot tested in three Arizona cities. Data come from matched pre- and post-test surveys completed in 2012 by 75 American Indian parents of adolescents aged 10–17 who participated in the pilot version of P2W. P2W is a 10-workshop program administered twice a week for 5 weeks by trained American Indian community facilitators. Parents completed pre-test surveys during Workshop 1 and post-test surveys 5 weeks later during Workshop 10. Paired t tests assessed changes in parenting outcomes, cultural identity, and child anti-social behavior. Changes from pre- to post-test demonstrated statistically significant improvements in several parenting outcomes (discipline, involvement, self-agency, and supervision), a strengthened sense of ethnic and cultural identity and Native spirituality, and a decrease in the child’s anti-social behavior. These results, which show significant preliminary improvements in parenting skills and family functioning, suggest the feasibility of implementing a culturally grounded parenting intervention for urban American Indian parents.


Parenting Intervention Urban American Indians Community-based participatory research 



Funding for this research was supported in part by the National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities of the National Institutes of Health, award 1 R01 MD 006110 (S. Kulis, P.I.). The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the views or policies of the NIMHD, the NIH, or the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

Conflict of interest

There is no conflict of interest.


  1. Achenback, T. M., & Rescorla, L. A. (2001). Manual for the ASEBA school-age forms and profiles. Burlington, VT: University of Vermont, Research Center for Children, Youth & Families.Google Scholar
  2. Ackard, D. M., Neumark-Sztainer, D., Story, M., & Perry, C. (2006). Parent–child connectedness and behavioral and emotional health among adolescents. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 30, 59–66. doi: 10.1016/j.amepre.2005.09.013.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Castro, F. G., Berrera, M., & Martinez, C. (2004). The cultural adaptation of prevention interventions: Resolving tensions between fidelity and fit. Prevention Science, 5(1), 41–45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Champagne, D. (1999). Contemporary native American cultural issues. Lanham, MD: AltaMira.Google Scholar
  5. Coatsworth, D., Pantin, H., & Szapocznik, J. (2002). Familias unidas: A family-centered ecodevelopmental intervention to reduce risk for problem behavior among Hispanic adolescents. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 5, 113–132.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Coleman, P. K., & Karraker, K. H. (2000). Self-efficacy among mothers of school-age children: Conceptualization, measurement and correlates. Family Relations, 49(1), 13–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. De Koning, K., & Martin, M. (1996). Participatory research in health: Issues and experiences (2nd ed.). London: Zed Books.Google Scholar
  8. Dumka, L. E., Soterzinger, H. D., Jackson, K. M., & Roosa, M. W. (1996). Examination of cross-cultural and cross-language equivalence of the parenting self-agency measure. Family Relations, 45, 216–222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Fraser, M. W., Galinsky, M. J., & Richman, J. M. (1999). Risk, protection, and resilience: Toward a conceptual framework for social work practice. Social Work Research, 23(3), 131–143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Gorman-Smith, D., Tolan, P. H., & Henry, D. B. (2000). A developmental-ecological model of the relation of family functioning to patterns of delinquency. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 16(2), 169–198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Gorman-Smith, D., Tolan, P. H., Zelli, A., & Huesmann, L. R. (1996). The relation of family functioning to violence among inner-city minority youths. Journal of Family Psychology, 10(2), 115–129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Israel, B. A., Schulz, A. J., Parker, E. A., Becker, A. B., Allen, A. J., I. I. I., & Guzman, J. R. (2008). Critical issues in developing and following CBPR principles. In M. Minkler & N. Wallerstein (Eds.), Community-based participatory research for health: From process to outcomes (pp. 47–66). San Francisco, CA: Wiley.Google Scholar
  13. Jumper-Reeves, L. R., Dustman, P. A., Harthun, M. L., Kulis, S., & Brown, E. F. (2014). American Indians’ cultures: How CBPR illuminated inter-tribal cultural elements fundamental to an adaptation effort. Prevention Science, 15, 547–556. doi: 10.1007/s11121-012-0361-7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Kulis, S., Hodge, D. R., Ayers, S. L., Brown, E. F., & Marsiglia, F. F. (2012). Spirituality and religion: Intertwined protective factors for substance use among urban American Indian youth. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 38, 444–449.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. LaFromboise, T. D., Hoyt, D. R., Oliver, L., & Whitbeck, L. B. (2006). Family, community, and school influences on resilience among American Indian adolescents in the upper Midwest. Journal of Community Psychology, 34(2), 193–209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Loeber, R., Farrington, D. P., Stouthamer-Loeber, M., & van Kammen, W. (Eds.). (1998). Antisocial behavior and mental health problems. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  17. Marsiglia, F. F., Williams, L., Ayers, S. L., & Booth, J. M. (2014). Familias: Perparando la Nueva generación: A randomized control trial testing the effects on positive parenting practices. Research on social Work Practice, 24(3), 310-320. doi: 10.1177/1049731513498828.
  18. Moran, J. R., Fleming, C. M., Somervall, P., & Manson, S. M. (1999). Measuring bicultural ethnic identity among AI adolescents: A factor analytic study. Journal of Adolescent Research, 14(4), 405–426.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Norris, T., Vines, P. L., & Hoeffel, E. M. (2012).The American Indian and Alaska native population: 2010. 2010 census briefs. Washington, DC: US Department of Commerce/US Census Bureau.Google Scholar
  20. Padilla-Walker, L. M., Nelson, L. J., Madsen, S. D., & Barry, C. M. (2008). The role of perceived parental knowledge on emerging adults’ risk behaviors. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 37(7), 847–859.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Phinney, J. S. (1992). The multigroup ethnic identity measure a new scale for use with diverse groups. Journal of Adolescent Research, 7(2), 156–176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Szapocznik, J., & Coatsworth, J. D. (1999). An ecodevelopmental framework for organizing risk and protection for drug abuse: A developmental model of risk and protection. In M. Glantz & C. R. Hartel (Eds.), Drug abuse: Origins and Interventions (pp. 331–366). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Williams, L. R., Ayers, S. L., Garvey, M., Marsiglia, F. F., & Castro, F. G. (2012). The efficacy of a culturally based parenting intervention: Strengthening open communication between Mexican-heritage parents and their adolescent children. Journal of the society for Social Work and Research, 3(4), 296–307.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stephen Kulis
    • 1
    • 2
  • Stephanie L. Ayers
    • 1
  • Tahnee Baker
    • 1
    • 3
  1. 1.Southwest Interdisciplinary Research CenterArizona State UniversityPhoenixUSA
  2. 2.T. Denny Sanford School of Social and Family DynamicsArizona State UniversityTempeUSA
  3. 3.School of Social WorkArizona State UniversityPhoenixUSA

Personalised recommendations