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The Journal of Primary Prevention

, Volume 36, Issue 1, pp 21–31 | Cite as

A Healthy Lifestyle Index Is Associated With Reduced Risk of Colorectal Adenomatous Polyps Among Non-Users of Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs

  • Fred K. Tabung
  • Susan E. Steck
  • James B. Burch
  • Chin-Fu Chen
  • Hongmei Zhang
  • Thomas G. Hurley
  • Philip Cavicchia
  • Melannie Alexander
  • Nitin Shivappa
  • Kim E. Creek
  • Stephen C. Lloyd
  • James R. Hebert
Original Paper

Abstract

In a Columbia, South Carolina-based case–control study, we developed a healthy lifestyle index from five modifiable lifestyle factors (smoking, alcohol intake, physical activity, diet, and body mass index), and examined the association between this lifestyle index and the risk of colorectal adenomatous polyps (adenoma). Participants were recruited from a local endoscopy center and completed questionnaires related to lifestyle behaviors prior to colonoscopy. We scored responses on each of five lifestyle factors as unhealthy (0 point) or healthy (1 point) based on current evidence and recommendations. We added the five scores to produce a combined lifestyle index for each participant ranging from 0 (least healthy) to 5 (healthiest), which was dichotomized into unhealthy (0–2) and healthy (3–5) lifestyle scores. We used logistic regression to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) for adenoma with adjustment for multiple covariates. We identified 47 adenoma cases and 91 controls. In the main analyses, there was a statistically nonsignificant inverse association between the dichotomous (OR 0.54; 95 % CI 0.22, 1.29) and continuous (OR 0.75; 95 % CI 0.51, 1.10) lifestyle index and adenoma. Odds of adenoma were significantly modified by the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (p interaction = 0.04). For participants who reported no use of NSAIDs, those in the healthy lifestyle category had a 72 % lower odds of adenoma as compared to those in the unhealthy category (OR 0.28; 95 % CI 0.08, 0.98), whereas a one-unit increase in the index significantly reduced odds of adenoma by 53 % (OR 0.47; 95 % CI 0.26, 0.88). Although these findings should be interpreted cautiously given our small sample size, our results suggest that higher scores from this index are associated with reduced odds of adenomas, especially in non-users of NSAIDs. Lifestyle interventions are required to test this approach as a strategy to prevent colorectal adenomatous polyps.

Keywords

Colorectal adenomatous polyps Healthy lifestyle index NSAIDs 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by a University of South Carolina Research Opportunity Award (PI: SE. Steck) and by a supplemental Grant from the National Cancer Institute (NCI) (U01 CA114601-03S5) as part of the South Carolina Cancer Disparities Community Network (SCCDCN, PI: JR Hébert; Co-Project Leaders: JB Burch and SE Steck) and the NCI-funded SCCDCN-II (U54 CA153461-01). Dr. Tabung and Dr. Hebert were supported by National Institutes of Health Grants numbers F31CA177255 and K05CA136975, respectively. Dr. Steck was supported by the USC Center for Colon Cancer Research (COBRE 5P20RR017698). Melannie Alexander was supported by the University of South Carolina Behavioral-Biomedical Interface Program, funded in part by training Grant T32-5R18CE001240 from the National Institute of General Medical Sciences. We are grateful to the South Carolina Medical Endoscopy Center (SCMEC) for providing their facility for participant recruitment and data collection and to our study participants for volunteering time to participate in the study.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Fred K. Tabung
    • 1
    • 2
  • Susan E. Steck
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • James B. Burch
    • 1
    • 2
    • 4
  • Chin-Fu Chen
    • 5
  • Hongmei Zhang
    • 6
  • Thomas G. Hurley
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Philip Cavicchia
    • 2
  • Melannie Alexander
    • 1
    • 2
    • 4
  • Nitin Shivappa
    • 1
    • 2
  • Kim E. Creek
    • 7
  • Stephen C. Lloyd
    • 8
  • James R. Hebert
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    • 8
  1. 1.Department of Epidemiology and BiostatisticsUniversity of South CarolinaColumbiaUSA
  2. 2.Cancer Prevention and Control ProgramUniversity of South CarolinaColumbiaUSA
  3. 3.Center for Research in Nutrition and Health DisparitiesUniversity of South CarolinaColumbiaUSA
  4. 4.Dorn Department of Veteran’s Affairs Medical CenterColumbiaUSA
  5. 5.Center for Molecular StudiesGreenwood Genetic CenterGreenwoodUSA
  6. 6.Division of Epidemiology, Biostatistics, and Environmental Health SciencesUniversity of MemphisMemphisUSA
  7. 7.Department of Drug Discovery and Biomedical Sciences, South Carolina College of PharmacyUniversity of South CarolinaColumbiaUSA
  8. 8.South Carolina Medical Endoscopy Center, and Department of Family and Preventive MedicineSchool of Medicine, University of South CarolinaColumbiaUSA

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