Dietary Supplement Use by Children and Adolescents in the United States to Enhance Sport Performance: Results of the National Health Interview Survey
Dietary supplements may improve sport performance in adults. However, this has not been established in children. The aim of this study was to assess self-reported or parental-reported dietary supplement use to enhance sports performance among the child subset of the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) dataset and determine national population estimates for that use. NHIS 2007 Child Alternative Medicine files containing records for children aged <18 years were used. Typical demographic variables were utilized as well as parental presence; parental education level; use of any herb, vitamin, and/or mineral use for sports performance by children; and age. Most (94.5%) who reported using supplements used multivitamin and/or mineral combinations followed by fish oil/omega-3 s, creatine, and fiber. Males were more likely users (OR = 2.1; 95% CI [1.3, 3.3]), and Whites reported greater usage. Mean user age was 10.8 (SD = 0.2) with 57.7% >10 years, indicating some increase in use with higher age categories (p < .001). Most were US born and reported living with both parents. Parents and children report child use of a wide variety of herbal and vitamin/mineral supplements to improve sports performance. Usage could be predicted by age, gender, and level of education but less likely by parent-based demographics.
KeywordsAdolescent Dietary supplements Food supplements Sports performance
- American College of Sports Medicine, the American Dietetic Association, & the Dietitians of Canada. (2009). Special Communication. Joint Position Statement on Nutrition and Athletic Performance. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 41, 701–731.Google Scholar
- American Dietetic Association Position Statement on Nutrient Supplementation. (2009). Retrieved October 5, 2010 from http://www.eatright.org/About/Content.aspx?id=8409.
- Azizi, R. (2010). “Supplementing” the DSHEA: Congress must invest the FDA with greater regulatory authority over nutraceutical manufacturers by amending the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act. California Law Review, 98, 439–480.Google Scholar
- BodyBuilding.com. (n.d.). Supplements for teens. Retrieved August 27, 2010 from http://www.bodybuilding.com/store/teens.htm#16.
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2004). Improving the health of adolescents & young adults: A guide for states and communities. Washington, DC: Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion; Division of Adolescent and School Health; Health Resources and Services Administration; Office of Adolescent Health, Maternal and Child Health Bureau; National Adolescent Health Information Center, University of California, San Francisco.Google Scholar
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2007). National Health Interview Survey: 2007 data release [Data file]. Retrieved July 30, 2010 from http://www.cdc.gov/NCHS/nhis/nhis_2007_data_release.htm.
- Dunn, M., Eddy, J. M., Wang, M. Q., Nagy, S., Perko, M. A., & Bartee, R. T. (2001). The influence of significant others on attitudes, subjective norms, and intentions regarding dietary supplement use among adolescent athletes. Adolescence, 35, 583–591.Google Scholar
- First Place Supplements. (2005). Bodybuilding supplements for older teens. Retrieved August 27, 2010 from http://www.1stplace-supplements.com/teens.php.
- Food and Drug Administration. (2007). Final rule promotes safe use of dietary supplements. Retrieved August 27, 2010 from http://www.fda.gov/downloads/ForConsumers/ConsumerUpdates/UCM143584.pdf.
- Fox, M. (2010, August 3). U.S. dietary supplements often contaminated: Report. Reuters. Retrieved August 30, 2010 from http://www.reuters.com/article/idUSTRE6721F520100803?feedType=nl&feedName=ushealth1100.
- Herbold, N. H., Vazquez, I. M., Goodman, E., & Emans, J. (2004). Vitamin, mineral, herbal, and other supplement use by adolescents. Topics in Clinical Nutrition, 19, 266–272.Google Scholar
- International Olympics Committee. (n.d.). Analysis of non-hormonal nutritional supplements for anabolic-androgenic steroids: An international study. Retrieved August 27, 2010 from http://www.olympic.org/Documents/Reports/EN/en_report_324.pdf.
- Muth, M. K., Domanico, J. L., Anderson, D. W., Siegal, P. H., & Bloch, L. J. (1999). Dietary supplement sales information: A final report. (Prepared for Department of Health and Human Services, Food and Drug Administration, Contract No. 223-96-2290). Research Triangle Park, NC: Research Triangle Institute.Google Scholar
- National Council on Youth Sports. (2008). Report on trends and participation in organized youth sports. Retrieved August 20, 2010 from http://18.104.22.168/pdfs/2008/2008-ncys-market-research-report.pdf.
- National Federation of State High School Associations. (2009). High School Athletics Participation Survey, 2008–2009. Retrieved August 20, 2010 from http://www.nfhs.org/content.aspx?id=3282&linkidentifier=id&itemid=3282.
- New Jersey Senate Democrats. (2007). Codey/Girdelli bill banning sale of creatine to minors passes committee. Retrieved October 5, 2010 from http://www.njsendems.com/release.asp?rid=802.
- Nutrition Business Journal. (2011). Sports nutrition and weight loss report—Executive summary. Retrieved January, 12, 2012 from http://newhope360.com/research/nbj-sports-nutrition-weight-loss-report.
- U. S. Census Bureau. (2000). Modified race data summary file. Census of population and housing [Data file]. Retrieved January 12, 2012 from http://www.census.gov/popest/data/historical/files/MRSF-01-US1.pdf.