Fabrication of self-ordered nanoporous alumina with 500–750 nm interpore distances using hard anodization in phosphoric/oxalic acid mixtures
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A hard anodization (HA) technique is employed using different mixtures of phosphoric/oxalic acid for fast fabrication of alumina nanopore arrays in voltages higher than 200 V. The mixtures enable to avoid the breakdown of porous anodic alumina (PAA) in the high voltages. It is revealed for the first time that continuously tunable pore intervals (Dint) from 500 to 750 nm can be controlled by varying the concentrations of oxalic acid at anodization voltages (Uanod) from 230 to 360 V, far beyond the Uanod in the single electrolyte of phosphoric acid or oxalic acid. The ratios of interpore distance, pore diameter and barrier layer thickness to anodization voltage are in the range of conventional HA process for each acid mixture. In this approach, the PAA film growth rate is 26 µm/h, being 7 times larger than that in typical mild anodization.