Journal of Porous Materials

, Volume 23, Issue 2, pp 357–363 | Cite as

Fabrication of self-ordered nanoporous alumina with 500–750 nm interpore distances using hard anodization in phosphoric/oxalic acid mixtures

  • Hasan Ali Rayat Azimi
  • Majid Zarei
  • Amir Rafati
  • Mohammad Noormohammadi


A hard anodization (HA) technique is employed using different mixtures of phosphoric/oxalic acid for fast fabrication of alumina nanopore arrays in voltages higher than 200 V. The mixtures enable to avoid the breakdown of porous anodic alumina (PAA) in the high voltages. It is revealed for the first time that continuously tunable pore intervals (Dint) from 500 to 750 nm can be controlled by varying the concentrations of oxalic acid at anodization voltages (Uanod) from 230 to 360 V, far beyond the Uanod in the single electrolyte of phosphoric acid or oxalic acid. The ratios of interpore distance, pore diameter and barrier layer thickness to anodization voltage are in the range of conventional HA process for each acid mixture. In this approach, the PAA film growth rate is 26 µm/h, being 7 times larger than that in typical mild anodization.


Hard anodization Mild anodization Porous anodic alumina Oxalic-phosphoric acid mixtures Growth rate 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hasan Ali Rayat Azimi
    • 1
  • Majid Zarei
    • 1
  • Amir Rafati
    • 2
  • Mohammad Noormohammadi
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Physics, Masjed-Soleiman BranchIslamic Azad UniversityMasjed-SoleimanIran
  2. 2.Department of Electrical Engineering, Masjed-Soleiman BranchIslamic Azad UniversityMasjed-SoleimanIran

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