Journal of Porous Materials

, Volume 21, Issue 4, pp 401–411 | Cite as

Improvement in the pore structure of polybenzoxazine-based carbon xerogels through a silica templating method

  • Uthen Thubsuang
  • Hatsuo Ishida
  • Sujitra Wongkasemjit
  • Thanyalak Chaisuwan


Polybenzoxazine (PBZ) is synthesized by a facile quasi-solventless method within 1 h of synthesis time and less than 24 h of gelation time without any need of heating, and used as a carbon xerogel precursor. The pore structure of PBZ-based carbon xerogel is improved by using silica nanoparticles as hard templates. A mesoporous carbon xerogel with uniform pore is successfully synthesized. TGA, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, and field emission scanning electron microscope are used to confirm the successful incorporation of silica template into the microstructure of PBZ xerogel. Depending on the amount of silica template loading (10–50 % w/w), the specific surface area of carbon xerogel is improved to 518–899 m2/g, comparing to that of reference carbon xerogel of 362 m2/g. The standard adsorption isotherm of carbon xerogel is changed from type I to type IV after silica templating method is used. Extremely large amounts of meso- and total pore volume of 1.04–4.26 and 1.34–6.05 cm3/g, respectively, are obtained for carbon xerogel by the current method. In addition, the amount of micropore volume in carbon xerogel is not affected by silica template.

Graphical Abstract


Polybenzoxazine Carbon xerogel Silica nanoparticles Template 



This work has been financially supported by the Petroleum and Petrochemical College, and the Center of Excellence on Petrochemical and Materials Technology, Chulalongkorn University. In addition, the authors also would like to express their deep appreciation to the Ratchadaphiseksomphot Endowment Fund of Chulalongkorn University (RES560530021-CC), for its financial support on this project.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.The Petroleum and Petrochemical College and the Center of Excellence on Petrochemical and Materials TechnologyChulalongkorn UniversityBangkokThailand
  2. 2.Department of Macromolecular Science and EngineeringCase Western Reserve UniversityClevelandUSA

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