Advertisement

Journal of Paleolimnology

, Volume 59, Issue 3, pp 297–308 | Cite as

Hyperspectral core logging for fire reconstruction studies

  • Antonin Van Exem
  • Maxime Debret
  • Yoann Copard
  • Boris Vannière
  • Pierre Sabatier
  • Stephane Marcotte
  • Benoit Laignel
  • Jean-Louis Reyss
  • Marc Desmet
Original paper

Abstract

Lacustrine sediments contain a wide range of proxies that enable paleoenvironmental reconstructions. For instance, charcoal can be used to document past fire regime changes. In order to analyse high-temporal- and spatial-resolution records, however, it is necessary to develop fast, low-cost and high-stratigraphic-resolution methods. We developed a new paleo-fire proxy by studying a lacustrine core from the Esterel Massif, SE France, an area affected by two recent fire events, in AD 1987 and 2003. For this purpose, we searched for charcoal deposited and preserved in the lake sediments by combining a number of complementary methods, including: classic macrocharcoal tallying, scanning spectrophotometry, scanning hyperspectral imaging and high pressure liquid chromatography analyses. Macrocharcoal quantification is efficient, but time-consuming, and only provides intermediate-resolution data (cm scale). Spectrophotometry, used classically to quantify colour, is very fast, provides high-resolution data (4 mm) and is non-destructive (core preservation). Hyperspectral data have the same advantages as spectrophotometry, but offer higher spatial resolution (64-µm pixel size) and higher spectral resolution (6 nm) for core logging applications. The main result of this research is based on hyperspectral analysis at very high stratigraphic resolution using the I-band index. This index usually measures reflectance values at [660, 670 nm] corresponding to the trough in red reflectance produced by Chlorophyll a and its diagenetic products. This [660, 670 nm] reflectance trough, however, is also affected by the presence of altered organic matter and decreases with altered organic matter such as charcoal particles. Charcoal effect on the reflectance of Chlorophyll a and its diagenetic products is identified on first derivative spectra by a characteristic pattern around 675 nm, which is also in agreement with the Chlorophyll a concentrations measured by high-pressure liquid chromatography and charcoal particles. The I-band index is hence suitable for detecting burned organic matter, by quantifying the dilution of the chlorophyll signal by the charcoal signal. Thus, this adaptation of the I-band index can be applied in fire reconstruction studies.

Keywords

Charcoal Fire Paleolimnology Lake sediments Chlorophyll index Hyperspectral high-resolution core logging 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was funded by the Region Normandie, which supports the scientific consortium SCALE UMR CNRS 3730. Charcoal tallying was done at the UMR Chrono-environnement, Besançon, in the framework of Région Franche-Comté Project No. 2016YC-04552. We thank M. Fournier, University of Rouen for support, the Laboratoire Souterrain de Modane for the very-low-background radioactivity facilities, Emmanuel Viard for processing samples for HPLC analysis. A. Van Exem was responsible for data acquisition in Rouen, C. Butz in Bern. We are grateful to the two anonymous reviewers.

References

  1. Appleby PG, Oldfield F (1992) Application of 210Pb to sedimentation studies. In: Ivanovich M, Harmon RS (eds) Uranium series disequilibrium. Clarendon Press, Oxford, pp 731–778Google Scholar
  2. Appleby PG, Richardson N, Nolan PJ (1991) 241Am dating of lake sediment. Hydrobiologia 214:35–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Balsam WL, Beeson JP (2003) Sea-floor sediment distribution in the Gulf of Mexico. Deep Sea Res 50:1421–1444.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsr.2003.06.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Balsam WL, Deaton BC (1996) Determining the composition of late quaternary marine sediments from NUV, VIS, and NIR diffuse reflectance spectra. Marine Geol 134:31–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Balsam WL, Damuth JE, Schneider RR (1997) Comparison of shipboard vs. shorebased spectral data from Amazon Fan cores: implications for interpreting sediment composition. Ocean Drill Prog Sci 155s:193–215Google Scholar
  6. Balsam WL, Deaton BC, Damuth JE (1999) Evaluating optical lightness as a proxy for carbonate content in marine sediment cores. Marine Geol 161:141–153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Barranco FT, Balsam WL, Deaton BC (1989) Quantitative reassessment of brick red lutites—evidence from reflectance spectrophotometry. Marine Geol 89:299–314CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Butz C, Grosjean M, Poraj-Górska A, Enters D, Tylmann W (2016) Sedimentary Bacteriopheophytin a as an indicator of meromixis in varved lake sediments of Lake Jaczno, north-east Poland, CE 1891–2010. Glob Planet Chang 144:109–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chatry C, Le Gallou Y, Le Quebtrec M, Lafite J-J, Laurens D, Creuchet B, Grelu J (2010) Changement climatique et extension des zones sensibles aux feux de forêts. Rapport de la mission interministérielleGoogle Scholar
  10. Clark RN (1983) Spectral properties of mixtures of montmorillonite and dark carbon grains: implications for remote sensing minerals containing chemically and physically adsorbed water. J Geophys Res 88(10,635):10,644Google Scholar
  11. Clark JS (1988) Stratigraphic charcoal analysis on petrographic thin sections: application to fire history in northwestern Minnesota. Quat Res 30:81–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Dearing JA, Hu Y, Doody P, James PA, Rauer A (2001) Preliminary reconstruction of sediment-source linkages for the past 6000 years at the Petit Lac d’Annecy, France, based on mineral magnetic data. J Paleolimnol 25:245–258CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Deaton BC, Balsam WL (1991) Visible spectroscopy—a rapid method for determining hématite and goethite concentration in geological materials. J Sediment Res 61:628–632CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Debret M, Desmet M, Balsam W, Copard Y, Francus P, Laj C (2006) Spectrophotometer analysis of Holocene sediments from an anoxic fjord: Saanich Inlet, British Columbia, Canada. Marine Geol 229:15–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Debret M, Sebag D, Desmet M, Balsam W, Copard Y, Mourier B, Winiarski T (2011) Spectrocolorimetric interpretation of sedimentary dynamics: the new “Q7/4 diagram”. Earth Sci Rev 109:1–19.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.earscirev.2011.07.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Debret M, Bentaleb I, Sebag D, Favier C, Nguetsop V, Fontugne M, Oslisly R, Ngomanda A (2014) Influence of inherited paleotopography and water level rise on the sedimentary infill of Lake Ossa (S Cameroon) inferred by continuous color and bulk organic matter analyses. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 411:110–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Goldberg E (1963) Geochronology with lead-210 radioactive dating. International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, pp 121–131Google Scholar
  18. Guilliano M, Mille G, Kister J, Muller JF (1988) Étude des spectres IRTF de charbons français déminéralisés et de leurs macéraux. J Chim Phys 85:963–970CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Higuera PE, Peters ME, Brubaker LB, Gavin DG (2007) Understanding the origin and analysis of sediment-charcoal records with a simulation model. Quat Sci Rev 26:1790–1809CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. IPCC (2013) Climate change 2013: the physical science basis. IPCC Working Group I Contribution to AR5Google Scholar
  21. Krishnaswamy S, Lal D, Martin JM, Meybeck M (1971) Geochronology of lake sediments. Earth Planet Sci Lett 11:407–414CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Lafargue E, Marquis F, Pillot D (1998) Rock-Eval 6 applications in hydrocarbon exploration, production, and soil contamination studies. Oil Gas Sci Technol 53:421–437Google Scholar
  23. Lynch JA, Clark JS, Stocks BJ (2004) Charcoal production, dispersal, and deposition from the Fort Providence experimental fire: interpreting fire regimes from charcoal records in boreal forests. Can J For Res 34:1642–1656CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Milliken RE, Mustard JF (2007) Estimating the water content of hydrated minerals using reflectance spectroscopy: I. Effects of darkening agents and low-albedo materials. Icarus 189:550–573.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.icarus.2007.02.017 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Pausas JG (2004) Changes in fire and climate in the eastern Iberian Peninsula (Mediterranean basin). Clim Change 63:337–350CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Rein B, Sirocko F (2002) In-situ reflectance spectroscopy—analysing techniques for high-resolution pigment logging in sediment cores. Int J Earth Sci 91:950–954CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Reyss JL, Schimdt S, Legeleux F, Bonte P (1995) Large low background well type detectors for measurements of environmental radioactivity. Nucl Instrum Methods 357:391–397CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. San-Miguel-Ayanz J, Pereira JMC, Boca R, Strobl P, Kucera J, Pekkarinen A (2009) Forest fires in the European Mediterranean region: mapping and analysis of burned areas. In: Chuvieco E (ed) Earth observation of wildland fires in Mediterranean ecosystems. Springer, New York, pp 189–203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Schalles JF, Gitelson AA, Yacobi YZ, Kroenke AE (1998) Estimation of chlorophyll a from time series measurements of high spectral resolution reflectance in an eutrophic lake. J Phycol 34:383–390CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Sobkowiak M, Reisser E, Given P, Painter PC (1984) Determination of aromatic and aliphatic CH groups in coal by FTIR. 1. Studies of coal extracts. Fuel 63:1245–1252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Thevenon F, Bard E, Williamson D, Beaufort L (2004) A biomass burning record from the West Equatorial Pacific over the last 360 ky: methodological, climatic and anthropic implications. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 213:83–99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Trachsel M, Kvisvik BC, Nielsen PR, Bakke J, Nesje A (2013) Inferring organic content of sediments by scanning reflectance spectroscopy (380–730 nm): applying a novel methodology in a case study from proglacial lakes in Norway. J Paleolimnol 50:583–592.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10933-013-9739-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Turner R, Kelly A, Roberts N (2008) A critical assessment and experimental comparison of microscopic charcoal extraction methods. In: Fiorentino G, Magri D (eds) Charcoals from the past: cultural and palaeoenvironmental implications. Proceedings of the third international meeting of anthracology, Cavallino (Lecce), June 2004. BAR international series. Archaeopress, Oxford, pp 265–272Google Scholar
  34. Vannière B, Bossuet G, Walter-Simonnet A-V, Gauthier E, Barral P, Petit C, Buatier M, Daubigney A (2003) Land use change, soil erosion and alluvial dynamic in the lower Doubs Valley over the 1st millenium AD (Neublans, Jura, France). J Archaeol Sci 30:1283–1299CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Vannière B, Colombaroli D, Chapron E, Leroux A, Tinner W, Magny M (2008) Climate versus human-driven fire regimes in Mediterranean landscapes: the Holocene record of Lago dell’Accesa (Tuscany, Italy). Quat Sci Rev 27:1181–1196CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Vannière B, Power MJ, Roberts N, Tinner W, Carrión J, Magny M, Bartlein P, Colombaroli D, Daniau AL, Finsinger W, Gil-Romera G, Kaltenrieder P, Pini R, Sadori L, Turner R, Valsecchi V, Vescovi E (2011) Circum-Mediterranean fire activity and climate changes during the mid Holocene environmental transition (8500-2500 cal yr BP). Holocene 21:53–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Whitlock C, Millspaugh SH (1996) Testing the assumptions of fire history studies: an examination of modern charcoal accumulation in Yellowstone National Park, USA. Holocene 6:7–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Wolfe AP, Vinebrooke RD, Michelutti N, Rivard B, Das B (2006) Experimental calibration of lake-sediment spectral reflectance to Chlorophyll a concentrations: methodology and paleolimnological validation. J Paleolimnol 36:91–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.UNIROUEN, UNICAEN, CNRS, M2CNormandie Univ.RouenFrance
  2. 2.Chrono-Environnement UMR 6249, MSHE USR 3124, CNRSUniv. Bourgogne Franche-ComtéBesançonFrance
  3. 3.Environnement, Dynamique et Territoires de Montagne (EDYTEM), CNRSUniversity Savoie Mont BlancLe Bourget du LacFrance
  4. 4.INSA Rouen, UNIROUEN, CNRS, COBRA (UMR 6014)Normandy UniversitySaint-Étienne-du-RouvrayFrance
  5. 5.GeHCOUniversity of ToursToursFrance
  6. 6.UMR CNRS 6143 - Morphodynamique Continentale et Côtière, Bâtiment Blondel - UFR Sciences et TechniquesUniversité de RouenMont-Saint-Aignan CedexFrance

Personalised recommendations