Relevance of phenylalanine 216 in the affinity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase for Mn(II)
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Saccharomyces cerevisiae phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) carboxykinase catalyzes the reversible formation of oxaloacetate and adenosine triphosphate from PEP, adenosine diphosphate and carbon dioxide, and uses Mn2+ as the activating metal ion. Comparison with the crystalline structure of homologous Escherichia coli PEP carboxykinase [Tari et al. (1997) Nature Struct. Biol. 4, 990–994] shows that Lys213 is one of the ligands to Mn2+ at the enzyme active site. Coordination of Mn2+ to a lysyl residue is not common and suggests a low pK a value for the ε-NH2 group of Lys213. In this work, we evaluate the role of neighboring Phe216 in contributing to provide a low polarity microenvironment suitable to keep the ε-NH2 of Lys213 in the unprotonated form. Mutation Phe216Tyr shows that the introduction of a hydroxyl group in the lateral chain of the residue produces a substantial loss in the enzyme affinity for Mn2+, suggesting an increase of the pK a of Lys213. In agreement with this interpretation, theoretical calculations indicate an alkaline shift of 2.8 pH units in the pK a of the ε-amino group of Lys213 upon Phe216Tyr mutation.
KeywordsPhosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase manganese binding site Saccharomyces cerevisiae theoretical pKa calculations manganese ligands in protein
circular dichroism spectroscopy
high-performance liquid chromatography
sodium dodecylsulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis
This work was supported by research grants FONDECYT 2010041 (AY) and 1030760 (EC). CD experiments were carried out at the Biophysics Instrumentation Facility of the University of Wisconsin-Madison, which was established by funding from NSF (BIR-9512577), NIH (S10RR3790), and the University of Wisconsin.
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