In this study, a biodegradable wheat gluten (WG) film containing calcium chloride and nano silica (WG/CaCl2/SiO2) was prepared and the physicochemical properties of the film were investigated. Finally, the WG/CaCl2/SiO2 film was used as a polymeric adsorbent for extraction of bioactive compounds from red grape pomace. The properties of the composite film, including thickness, water vapor permeability (WVP), solubility, antioxidant activity and mechanical property were investigated. FT-IR, SEM, XRD and DSC tests were performed to investigate the physical, morphology and thermal properties of film. The results showed that the addition of SiO2 decreased the WVP because these nanoparticles can fill the porous cavities of the film matrix. Furthermore, SiO2 caused to improve the water resistance of the film. With the addition of SiO2, the antioxidant content of the films increased compared to the control film. The addition of SiO2 to the film decreased the crystal property and addition of CaCl2 increased the crystal property of the film. In the second step, the optimum film as adsorbent was used to extract of the bioactive compounds from the red grape pomace. For this purpose, total phenol, flavonoid and anthocyanin content were measured before and after the extraction by film, and the optimum extraction conditions were obtained by the desirability function method. At optimum extraction condition, the phenolic compounds were extracted with 76.9% efficiency and optimum extraction temperature and time were 20.5 °C and 27.1 h, respectively. Due to the low solubility of WG/CaCl2/SiO2 film in water and its appropriate thermal and mechanical stability, the WG/CaCl2/SiO2 film in different aquatic environments can be used to extract bioactive compounds of fruit pomace.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Pintać D, Majkić T, Torović L, Orčić D, Beara I, Simin N, Lesjak M (2018) Solvent selection for efficient extraction of bioactive compounds from grape pomace. Ind Crops Prod 111:379–390
Ghafoor K, Park J, Choi YH (2010) Optimization of supercritical fluid extraction of bioactive compounds from grape (Vitis labrusca B) peel by using response surface methodology. Innov Food Sci Emerg Technol 11(3):485–490
Srinivasan A, Viraraghavan T (2010) Decolorization of dye wastewaters by biosorbents: a review. J Environ Manage 91(10):1915–1929
Pirsa S (2020) Biodegradable film based on pectin/Nano-clay/methylene blue: structural and physical properties and sensing ability for measurement of vitamin C. Int J Biol Macromol 163:666–675
Pirsa S, Farshchi E, Roufegarinejad L (2020) Antioxidant/antimicrobial film based on carboxymethyl cellulose/gelatin/TiO 2–Ag nano-composite. J Polym Environ 28(12):3154–3163
Pirsa S, Aghbolagh Sharifi K (2020) A review of the applications of bioproteins in the preparation of biodegradable films and polymers. J Chem Lett 1(2):47–58
Heralp TJ, Gnanasambandam R, McGuire BH, Hachmeister KA (1995) Degradable wheat gluten films: preparation, properties and applications. J Food Sci 60(5):1147–1150
Bourtoom T (2008) Edible films and coatings: characteristics and properties. Int Food Res J 15(3):237–248
Song Y, Zheng Q, Liu C (2008) Green biocomposites from wheat gluten and hydroxyethyl cellulose: processing and properties. Ind Crops Prod 28(1):56–62
Asadzadeh F, Pirsa S (2020) Specific removal of nitrite from Lake Urmia sediments by biohydrogel based on isolated soy protein/tragacanth/mesoporous silica nanoparticles/lycopene. Glob Chall 4(12):2000061
Hassannia-Kolaee M, Khodaiyan F, Pourahmad R, Shahabi-Ghahfarrokhi I (2016) Development of ecofriendly bionanocomposite: Whey protein isolate/pullulan films with nano-SiO2. Int J Biol Macromol 86:139–144
Kubo MTK, Rojas ML, Curet S, Boillereaux L, Augusto PED (2018) Peroxidase inactivation kinetics is affected by the addition of calcium chloride in fruit beverages. LWT 89:610–616
Fazilah A, Maizura M, Abd Karim A, Bhupinder K, Rajeev B (2011) Physical and mechanical properties of sago starch–alginate films incorporated with calcium chloride. Int Food Res J 18(3):1027–1033
Pirsa S, Mohtarami F, Kalantari S (2020) Preparation of biodegradable composite starch/tragacanth gum/nanoclay film and study of its physicochemical and mechanical properties. Chem Rev Lett 3(3):98–103
Rezaei M, Pirsa S, Chavoshizadeh S (2019) Photocatalytic/antimicrobial active film based on wheat gluten/ZNO nanoparticles. J Inorg Organomet Polym Mater 30:2654–2665
Asadi S, Pirsa S (2020) Production of biodegradable film based on polylactic acid, modified with lycopene pigment and TiO 2 and studying its physicochemical properties. J Polym Environ 28(2):433–444
Casariego ABWS, Souza BWS, Cerqueira MA, Teixeira JA, Cruz L, Díaz R, Vicente AA (2009) Chitosan/clay films’ properties as affected by biopolymer and clay micro/nanoparticles’ concentrations. Food Hydrocolloids 23(7):1895–1902
Pirsa S, Chavoshizadeh S (2018) Design of an optical sensor for ethylene based on nanofiber bacterial cellulose film and its application for determination of banana storage time. Polym Adv Technol 29(5):1385–1393
Chavoshizadeh S, Pirsa S, Mohtarami F (2020) Conducting/smart color film based on wheat gluten/chlorophyll/polypyrrole nanocomposite. Food Packag Shelf Life 24:100501
Pirsa S, Karimi Sani I, Pirouzifard MK, Erfani A (2020) Smart film based on chitosan/Melissa officinalis essences/pomegranate peel extract to detect cream cheeses spoilage. Food Addit Contam 37:634–648
Orak HH (2007) Total antioxidant activities, phenolics, anthocyanins, polyphenoloxidase activities of selected red grape cultivars and their correlations. Sci Hortic 111(3):235–241
Chang CC, Yang MH, Wen HM, Chern JC (2002) Estimation of total flavonoid content in propolis by two complementary colorimetric methods. J Food Drug Anal 10(3):178–182
Kalantari S, Roufegarinejad L, Pirsa S, Gharekhani M (2020) Green extraction of bioactive compounds of pomegranate peel using β-Cyclodextrin and ultrasound. Main Group Chem 19(1):61–80
Torabi Z, MohammadiNafchi A (2013) The effects of SiO2 nanoparticles on mechanical and physicochemical properties of potato starch films. J Chem Health Risks 3(1):33–42
Emamifar A, Kadivar M, Shahedi M, Soleimanian-Zad S (2011) Effect of nanocomposite packaging containing Ag and ZnO on inactivation of Lactobacillus plantarum in orange juice. Food Control 22(3–4):408–413
Song NB, Jo WS, Song HY, Chung KS, Won M, Song KB (2013) Effects of plasticizers and nano-clay content on the physical properties of chicken feather protein composite films. Food Hydrocolloids 31(2):340–345
Chavoshizadeh S, Pirsa S, Mohtarami F (2020) Sesame oil oxidation control by active and smart packaging system using wheat gluten/chlorophyll film to increase shelf life and detecting expiration date. Eur J Lipid Sci Technol 122(3):1900385
Olabarrieta I, Gällstedt M, Ispizua I, Sarasua JR, Hedenqvist MS (2006) Properties of aged montmorillonite: wheat gluten composite films. J Agric Food Chem 54(4):1283–1288
Sekar C, Parimaladevi R (2009) Effect of KCl addition on crystal growth and spectral properties of glycine single crystals. Spectrochim Acta A 74(5):1160–1164
Yang LY, Li HZ, Liu J, Sun ZQ, Tang SS, Lei M (2015) Dual yolk-shell structure of carbon and silica-coated silicon for high-performance lithium-ion batteries. Sci Rep 5:10908
Sartori T, Feltre G, do Amaral Sobral PJ, da Cunha RL, Menegalli FC (2018) Properties of films produced from blends of pectin and gluten. Food Packag Shelf Life 18:221–229
Han J, Xue JF, Xu M, Gui BS, Kuang L, Ouyang JM (2013) Coordination dynamics and coordination mechanism of a new type of anticoagulant diethyl citrate with Ca2 ions. Bioinorg Chem Appl 2013:354736. https://doi.org/10.1155/2013/354736
Ustabaş İ, Kaya A (2018) Comparing the pozzolanic activity properties of obsidian to those of fly ash and blast furnace slag. Constr Build Mater 164:297–307
Rocca-Smith JR, Marcuzzo E, Karbowiak T, Centa J, Giacometti M, Scapin F, Debeaufort F (2016) Effect of lipid incorporation on functional properties of wheat gluten based edible films. J Cereal Sci 69:275–282
Wang L, Zhang M, Song J, Miao Z (2019) Effects of quaternization on properties of biodegradable Poly (butylene succinate) with low crystallinity. Mater Res Express 6(4):045304
Lai J, Xin C, Zhao Y, Feng B, He C, Dong Y, Fang Y, He C, Dong Y, Fang YW (2013) Optimization ultrasonic assisted extraction of antioxidants from black soybean (Glycine max var) sprouts using response surface methodology. Molecules 18:1101–1110
Wissam Z, Ghada B, Wassim A, Warid K (2012) Effective extraction of polyphenols and proanthocyanidins from pomegranate’s peel. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 4(3):675–682
Silva EM, Rogez H, Larondelle Y (2007) Optimization of extraction of phenolics from Inga edulis leaves using response surface methodology. Sep Purif Technol 55(3):381–387
Pirsa S, Banafshechin E, Amiri S, Rahimirad A, Ghafarzadeh J (2020) Detection of fraud of palm, sunflower, and corn oil in butter using HPLC profile of tocopherols and tocotrienols by response surface method. J Iran Chem Soc. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13738-020-02100-z
Ghasemi S, Bari MR, Pirsa S, Amiri S (2020) Use of bacterial cellulose film modified by polypyrrole/TiO2-Ag nanocomposite for detecting and measuring the growth of pathogenic bacteria. Carbohydr Polym 232:115801
Asdagh A, Sani IK, Pirsa S, Amiri S, Shariatifar N, Eghbaljoo-Gharehgheshlaghi H, Taniyan A (2020) Production and characterization of nanocomposite film based on whey protein isolated/copper oxide nanoparticles containing coconut essential oil and paprika extract. J Polym Environ. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10924-020-01882-w
Mohammadi B, Pirsa S, Alizadeh M (2019) Preparing chitosan–polyaniline nanocomposite film and examining its mechanical, electrical, and antimicrobial properties. Polym Polym Compos 27(8):507–517
This work has been supported by grants from the Urmia University Research Council is gratefully acknowledged.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material.
About this article
Cite this article
Jabraili, A., Pirsa, S., Pirouzifard, M.K. et al. Biodegradable Nanocomposite Film Based on Gluten/Silica/Calcium Chloride: Physicochemical Properties and Bioactive Compounds Extraction Capacity. J Polym Environ (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10924-021-02050-4
- Wheat gluten
- Natural absorbent
- Red grape pomace