Journal of Polymers and the Environment

, Volume 26, Issue 7, pp 2813–2824 | Cite as

Citric Acid and Vitamin C as Coupling Agents for the Surface Coating of ZrO2 Nanoparticles and Their Behavior on the Optical, Mechanical, and Thermal Properties of Poly(vinyl alcohol) Nanocomposite Films

  • Shadpour Mallakpour
  • Ahmadreza Nezamzadeh Ezhieh
Original Paper


A series of bio-nanocomposites (BNC)s were fabricated through solution casting method. At first, the surfaces of ZrO2 NPs were functionalized with citric acid and Vitamin C as green modifier agents. Then, PVA as polymer matrix was embedded with different contents (4, 8 and 12 wt%) of modified ZrO2 (m-ZrO2) NPs with the aim of ultrasonic irradiation process. The resulting BNCs were studied by various techniques. Thermal stability of obtained BNCs was enhanced after NPs’ addition to the PVA matrix. Optical activity of these new BNCs makes them potential candidate for UV shielding material. Lastly, the tensile strengths of the BNCs were increased in comparison to the pure PVA.


ZrO2 nanoparticles Surface functionalization Poly(vinyl alcohol) Vitamin C (VC) Citric acid (CA) Core–shell morphology 



The Isfahan University of Technology (IUT), Isfahan, I. R. Iran, National Elite Foundation (NEF), Tehran, I. R. Iran, Iran Nanotechnology Initiative Council (INIC), Tehran, I. R. Iran, and Center of Excellence in Sensors and Green Chemistry Research (IUT), Isfahan, I. R. Iran are gratefully acknowledged for the financial support.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shadpour Mallakpour
    • 1
    • 2
  • Ahmadreza Nezamzadeh Ezhieh
    • 1
  1. 1.Organic Polymer Chemistry Research Laboratory, Department of ChemistryIsfahan University of TechnologyIsfahanIslamic Republic of Iran
  2. 2.Research Institute for Nanotechnology and Advanced MaterialsIsfahan University of TechnologyIsfahanIslamic Republic of Iran

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