Journal of Polymers and the Environment

, Volume 19, Issue 3, pp 776–783 | Cite as

Enhancement and Characterization of Chitosan Extraction from the Wastes of Shrimp Packaging Plants

  • A. Alishahi
  • A. Mirvaghefi
  • M. R. Tehrani
  • H. Farahmand
  • S. A. Shojaosadati
  • F. A. Dorkoosh
  • Maher Z. Elsabee
Original Paper


Chitin is the second most abundant carbohydrate polymer in nature next to cellulose. The main source of chitin is crustacean shells. Chitosan, derived from chitin by alkaline deacetylation, characteristically plays an important role in applications. Several parameters determine the chitosan specifications, namely, chitosan sources, incubation time, pretreatment conditions, temperature and acid and alkaline treatment. Chitosan extraction has been achieved by microwave heating and compared with that of conducting the deacetylation in an autoclave. High molecular weight chitosan (as determined by viscosity measurements of chitosan in dilute acetic acid solution), white color, high water binding capacity (WBC) and fat binding capacity (FBC) has been obtained by microwave treatment. In addition, microwave treatment saves a large amount of energy (due to the shorter time of heating) which is a very important factor for commercial productions. The data extracted from X-ray diffraction, nuclear magnetic resonance and Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy have shown more crystalline and higher DDA of chitosan produced in microwave than the one in autoclave. Moreover, the antibacterial activity of chitosan prepared by microwaves was higher than that produced using the autoclave.


Chitosan Color characteristics Deacetylation Viscosity Crystallinity Antibacterial properties 



The authors are grateful to Tehran University for financial support and Mr. Rezaee for taking the SEM photographs. In addition, the authors are much grateful to Mr. Khatir for editing the paper linguistically and grammatically.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. Alishahi
    • 1
  • A. Mirvaghefi
    • 1
  • M. R. Tehrani
    • 2
  • H. Farahmand
    • 1
  • S. A. Shojaosadati
    • 3
  • F. A. Dorkoosh
    • 2
  • Maher Z. Elsabee
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of FisheriesThe University of Agriculture and Natural Sciences of GorganGorganIran
  2. 2.Department of PharmaceuticsTehran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  3. 3.Department of Chemistry and EngineeringThe University of Tarbirt ModaresTehranIran
  4. 4.Department of Chemistry, Faculty of ScienceCairo UniversityCairoEgypt

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