Advertisement

Journal of Polymers and the Environment

, Volume 18, Issue 2, pp 104–115 | Cite as

Development of Thixotropic Coatings Using Dimerized Soybean Oil Fatty Acids: The Case of Polyamide of 1,2-Phenylene Diamine

  • Ikechukwu D. Anyaogu
  • Paul M. Ejikeme
  • John A. Ibemesi
Original Paper
  • 122 Downloads

Abstract

Soybean oil (SBO) was dimerized and the crude dimer acid product reacted with 1,2-phenylene diamine at 210 ± 5 °C under inert atmosphere to obtain fatty polyamide (FPA). The FPA was used to modify a commercial alkyd resin by reacting a mixture of the alkyd resin with 5 wt% of FPA at 120 °C for 80 min under inert atmosphere. The FTIR spectrum of the FPA modified resin showed evidence of higher degree of H-bonding than was found for the unmodified alkyd. White gloss coatings of 15, 20, 25, and 30% solids were formulated from the modified and unmodified resins and examined for performance with respect to: leveling, sag resistance, drying time, pigment settling, skinning tendency and film hardness. Results showed that the unmodified alkyd coatings exhibited good leveling but poor sag resistance at all solid contents. In contrast, FPA modified alkyd coatings combined good leveling with high sag resistance indicating their thixotropic nature. A strong tendency to pigment settling was observed for unmodified alkyd coatings but was not observed in the FPA modified alkyd coatings. The modified alkyd coatings showed skinning while the unmodified alkyd coatings did not skin. A 30% solids coating formulation of the FPA modified resin showed shorter surface dry time but longer hard dry time than the unmodified alkyd resin coating.

Keywords

Alkyd resin Dimer acids Fatty polyamide Soybean oil Thixotropy Thixotropic coating 

References

  1. 1.
    Peerman DE (1972) Polyamide from fatty acid. In: Encyclopedia of polymer science and technology, vol 10. Willey, New York, p 607Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    O’Hara K, Gordon WP (1985) Thixotropy in industrial coatings. Proceedings of XIth international conference in organic coating science and technology, vol 11. Athens, pp 273–292Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Woodbridge R (1999) Principles of paint formulation. Blackie Publishers, Glasgow, p 57Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Yamaka H (1986) Jpn Kokai. Japanese Patent no 61209276Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bakker PJ, Rensen E, Aerts J (1999) New thixotropic alkyd resin family based on polyamide technology. Proceedings of 5th Numberg congressGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Winkler R (1953) United State Patent no 2,663,649Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Frank W, Raichle K, Kresis E (1977) United State Patent No 4,026,835 (to Bayer AG)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Mandik L, Ruzickova J, Hajek K (1975) Farbe Lack 81(5):419–427Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Brandt D (1976) United Kingdom Patent No 14542388 (to Marcken Naucht KG)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Butter R (1978) Ger Offen 2,751,761 (to Akzo GMH)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Zucckert B (1981) European Patent EP35666 (to Vianova Kunsthartz A-G)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Brandt D (1983) United State Patent No 4,383,068 (to August Merckens, Nachf K-G)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Van Berk P, Verbogt P, Bracken J (1987) United Kingdom Patent No GB2177411 and GB2177412 (to Labofina SA)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Rao M, Youn HC, Toussanint AF, Decapite MG (1997) United State Patent No 5,591,793 (to William Co.)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Bakker P, Rensen E (2003) United State Patent No 6,630,541 (to Akzo Nobel NV)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Weltmann RN (1943) J Appl Phy 41:343CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Annual Book of the American Society for Testing and Materials, Part 20. ASTM International, Philadelphia (1973)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Annual Book of the American Society for Testing and Materials, Part 21. ASTM International, Philadelphia (1973)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Sward GG (ed) (1972) Paint testing manual, 13th edn. ASTM, Philadelphia, p 447Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Bruno TJ, Svorono PDN (1992) Handbook of basic tables for chemical analysis. CRC Press Inc, Boca Raton, p 294Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Dean JA (ed) (1992) Langes handbook of chemistry, 14th edn. McGraw Hill Inc, New York, pp 7.54–7.56Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Cowan JC, Falkenburg LB, Teeter HM (1944) Ind Eng Chem Annal 16:2Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Leonard EC (1982) Kirk-Othmer Encyclopadia of Chemical Technology, 3rd edn, vol 7. Willey, New York, pp 768–782Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Inoue H, Konishi K, Taniguchi N (1970) J Chromatogr 110:348–354CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Sublett MD (2000) Process for producing light color dimer acid from the dimerization of unsaturated fatty acid, WO 00/75252 (to Cognis Copr)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Trapennikov AA, Borisov BN (1969) Zh Fiz Khim 43(11):2927–2929Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Burrel H (1962) Off Digest 34:445Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Mallegol J, Barry AM, Ciampi E, Glover PM, McDonald PJ, Keddie JL, Wallin M, Motiejauskaite A, Weissenborn PK (2002) J Coat Technol 74(933):113CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ikechukwu D. Anyaogu
    • 1
    • 2
  • Paul M. Ejikeme
    • 1
  • John A. Ibemesi
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Pure and Industrial ChemistryUniversity of NigeriaNsukkaNigeria
  2. 2.Department of Science Laboratory TechnologyFederal Polytechnic NasarawaNasarawaNigeria

Personalised recommendations