Biobased Contents of Organic Fillers and Polycaprolactone Composites with Cellulose Fillers Measured by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry Based on ASTM D6866
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The biobased contents of raw materials such as starches, sugar, chitin, or wood powders for biomass plastics were measured using Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) based on ASTM D6866. AMS measures the isotope carbon ratio of 14C to 12C and 13C in graphite derived from sample powders. The biobased contents of starches, sugar or chitin were almost 100% which means that they are fully biobased. The biobased contents of the wood powders were over 140% due to the effect of the post 1950s 14C injection due to nuclear testing. Poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) composite samples were prepared using the polymerization and direct molding method. The starting compound was the ε-caprolactone monomer liquid combined with cellulose and inorganic fillers using aluminum triflate as a catalyst at 80 °C for 6 or 24 h. PCL cylinder-shaped composite samples with a homogeneously dispersed cellulose filler were prepared with Mn = 4,600 (Mw/Mn = 2.9). The biobased content of the PCL composite with 50 wt% cellulose filler (51.67%) measured using AMS was slightly higher than the carbon ratio of cellulose in the starting powder samples (41.3 mol%). This is due to the higher biobased content (112.70%) of the cellulose filler used in this study. The biobased content of the polymer composite powders by AMS was found not to be affected by the presence of inorganic fillers, such as talc.
KeywordsBiobased content Biodegradable composite Accelerated mass spectrometry Poly(ε-caprolactone) composites Cellulose filler ASTM D6866
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