Advertisement

Journal of Network and Systems Management

, Volume 21, Issue 4, pp 677–706 | Cite as

A Multicast-Enabled Delivery Framework for QoE Assurance of Over-The-Top Services in Multimedia Access Networks

  • Niels Bouten
  • Steven Latré
  • Wim Van de Meerssche
  • Bart De Vleeschauwer
  • Koen De Schepper
  • Werner Van Leekwijck
  • Filip De Turck
Article

Abstract

Over-The-Top (OTT) video services are becoming more and more important in today’s broadband access networks. While original OTT services only offered short duration medium quality videos, more recently, premium content such as high definition full feature movies and live video are offered as well. For operators, who see the potential in providing Quality of Experience (QoE) assurance for an increased revenue, this introduces important new network management challenges. Traditional network management paradigms are often not suited for ensuring QoE guarantees as the provider does not have any control on the content’s origin. In this article, we focus on the management of an OTT-based video service. We present a loosely coupled architecture that can be seamlessly integrated into an existing OTT-based video delivery architecture. The framework has the goal of resolving the network bottleneck that might occur from high peaks in the requests for OTT video services. The proposed approach groups the existing Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) based video connections to be multicasted over an access network’s bottleneck and then splits them again to reconstruct the original HTTP connections. A prototype of this architecture is presented, which includes the caching of videos and incorporates retransmission schemes to ensure robust transmission. Furthermore, an autonomic algorithm is presented that allows to intelligently select which OTT videos need to be multicasted by making a remote assessment of the cache state to predict the future availability of content. The approach was evaluated through both simulation and large scale emulation and shows a significant gain in scalability of the prototype compared to a traditional video delivery architecture.

Keywords

Autonomic management HTTP Adaptive Streaming Multicast OTT services Multimedia delivery 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The iMinds Phanter (PHysical layer and Access Node TEchnology Revolutions) is a project co-funded by iMinds (Interdisciplinary institute for Technology) a research institute founded by the Flemish Government. Companies and organizations involved in the project are Alcatel-Lucent Bell, KULeuven ESAT, UGent TELIN, iMinds-IBCN, with project support of IWT. Steven Latré is funded by grant of the Fund for Scientific Research, Flanders (FWO-V).

References

  1. 1.
    BBC iPlayer—iPlayer TV home. http://www.bbc.co.uk/iplayer. Last accessed on 24 Feb 2012
  2. 2.
    YouTube—broadcast yourself. http://www.youtube.com. Last accessed on 24 Feb 2012
  3. 3.
    Watch TV. Watch movies.—online—free—Hulu. http://www.hulu.com. Last accessed on 24 Feb 2012
  4. 4.
    Netflix—watch TV shows online, watch movies online. http://www.netflix.com. Last accessed on 24 Feb 2012
  5. 5.
    Nielsen, State of the media: Mobile media report q3 2011. http://www.nielsen.com/us/en/insights/reports-downloads/2011/state-of-the-media-mobile-media-report-q3-2011.html. Last accessed on 24 Feb 2012
  6. 6.
    Knowledge Networks, Over-the-top video viewing surges by more than 30 videogame consoles, rental services, mobile contribute strongly. http://www.knowledgenetworks.com/news/releases/2011/090811_ott-video.html. Last accessed on 24 Feb 2012
  7. 7.
    Live—YouTube. http://www.youtube.com/live. Last accessed on 24 Feb 2012
  8. 8.
    Amazon.com instant video: watch anywhere. http://www.amazon.com/gp/video/ontv/ontv. Last accessed on 24 Feb 2012
  9. 9.
    Schulzrinne, H., Casner, S., Frederick, R., Jacobson, V.: RTP: A Transport Protocol for Real-Time Applications. RFC 3550 (Standard), July 2003. Updated by RFCs 5506, 5761, 6051, 6222 (2003)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Schulzrinne, H., Rao, A., Lanphier, R.: Real Time Streaming Protocol (RTSP). RFC 2326 (Proposed Standard), (April 1998)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Winkler, S., Sharma, A., McNally, D.: Perceptual video quality and blockiness metrics for multimedia streaming applications. In: Proceedings of International Symposium on Wireless Personal Multimedia Communications, pp. 547–552. Citeseer (2001)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Saxena, M., Sharan, U., Fahmy, S.: Analyzing video services in web 2.0: a global perspective. In: Proceedings of the 18th International Workshop on Network and Operating Systems Support for Digital Audio and Video, NOSSDAV ’08, (New York, NY, USA), pp. 39–44. ACM (2008)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Smooth streaming: The official Microsoft IIS site. http://www.iis.net/download/smoothstreaming. Last accessed on 24 Feb 2012
  14. 14.
    Pantos, E.R., May, W.: Internet draft—http live streaming. http://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-pantos-http-live-streaming-07 (2011)
  15. 15.
    Hassoun, D.: Dynamic streaming in flash media server 3.5 part 1: overview of the new capabilities. http://www.adobe.com/devnet/flashmediaserver/articles/dynstream_advanced_pt1.html. Last accessed on 24 Feb 2012
  16. 16.
    Begen, A., Akgul, T., Baugher, M.: Watching video over the web: part 1: streaming protocols. Internet Comput. IEEE 15, 54–63 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Begen, A., Akgul, T., Baugher, M.: Watching video over the web: part 2: applications, standardization, and open issues. Internet Comput. IEEE 15, 59–63 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Leu, J.-S., Chen, S.-F.: Trass: a transmission rate-adapted streaming server in a wireless environment. Int. J. Commun. Syst. 24(7), 852–871 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Liu, Y., Guo, Y., Liang, C.: A survey on peer-to-peer video streaming systems. Peer-to-peer Netw. Appl. 1(1), 18–28 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Gill, P., Arlitt, M., Li, Z., Mahanti, A.: Youtube traffic characterization: a view from the edge. In: Proceedings of the 7th ACM SIGCOMM Conference on Internet Measurement, IMC ’07, (New York, NY, USA), pp. 15–28. ACM (2007)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Cha, M., Kwak, H., Rodriguez, P., Ahn, Y.-Y., Moon, S.: I tube, you tube, everybody tubes: analyzing the world’s largest user generated content video system. In: Proceedings of the 7th ACM SIGCOMM Conference on Internet Measurement, IMC ’07, (New York, NY, USA), pp. 1–14. ACM (2007)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Mushtaq, M., Ahmed, T.: Enabling cooperation between isps and p2p systems toward iptv service delivery. In: Consumer Communications and Networking Conference (CCNC), 2010 7th IEEE, pp. 1–6 (January 2010)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Ben Moshe, B., Dvir, A., Solomon, A.: Analysis and optimization of live streaming for over the top video. In: Consumer Communications and Networking Conference (CCNC), 2011 IEEE, pp. 60–64 (January 2011)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Bouten, N., Latré, S., Van de Meerssche, W., De Schepper, K., De Vleeschauwer, B., Van Leekwijck, W., De Turck, F.: An autonomic delivery framework for HTTP adaptive streaming in multicast-enabled multimedia access networks. In: Proceedings of the 5th IEEE/IFIP Workshop on Distributed Autonomous Network Management Systems (DANMS 2012) (April 2012)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Zhang, X., Hassanein, H.: Video on-demand streaming on the internet x2014; a survey, In: Communications (QBSC), 2010 25th Biennial Symposium on, pp. 88–91 (May 2010)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    de Asís López-Fuentes, F.: P2p video streaming combining svc and mdc. Appl. Math. Comput. Sci. 21(2), 295–306 (2011)MATHGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Schwarz, H.,, Marpe, D., Wieg, T.: Overview of the scalable video coding extension of the h.264/avc standard. In: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology in Circuits and Systems for Video Technology, pp. 1103–1120 (2007)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Al-Naamany, A.M., Bourdoucen, H.: Tcp congestion control approach for improving network services. J. Netw. Syst. Manag. 13, 1–6 (2005). doi: 10.1007/s10922-005-1843-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Ahmed, T., Mushtaq, M.: P2p object-based adaptive multimedia streaming (poems). J. Netw. Syst. Manag. 15, 289–310 (2007). doi: 10.1007/s10922-007-9068-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Miyoshi, T., Sekiya, K.: Efficient transfer method for on-demand video delivery based on streaming packet analysis. In: Computers, Networks, Systems and Industrial Engineering (CNSI), 2011 First ACIS/JNU International Conference on, pp. 141–146 (May 2011)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Yu, Y.-S., Shieh, C.-K., Lin, C.-H., Wang, S.-Y.: P2pvr: a playback offset aware multicast tree for on-demand video streaming with vcr functions. J. Syst. Archit. 57, 392–403 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    I. M. systems technologies, Part 6: dynamic adaptive streaming over HTTP (DASH). ISO/IEC DIS 23001-6 (2011)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Schierl, T., Sanchez de la Fuente, Y., Globisch, R., Hellge, C., Wiegand, T.: Priority-based media delivery using svc with rtp and http streaming. Multimed. Tools Appl. 55, 227–246 (2011). doi: 10.1007/s11042-010-0572-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Wauters, T., De Bruyne, J., Martens, L., Colle, D., Dhoedt, B., Demeester, P., Haelvoet, K.: Hfc access network design for switched broadcast tv services. IEEE Trans. Broadcast. 53, 588–594 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Ns-3. http://www.nsnam.org/. Last accessed on 24 Feb 2012
  36. 36.
    Cha, M., Rodriguez, P., Crowcroft, J., Moon, S., Amatriain, X.: Watching television over an ip network. In: Proceedings of the 8th ACM SIGCOMM Conference on Internet Measurement, IMC ’08, (New York, NY, USA), pp. 71–84. ACM (2008)Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Liu, Y., Simon, G.: Distributed delivery system for time-shifted streaming systems. In: Proceedings of the 2010 IEEE 35th Conference on Local Computer Networks, LCN ’10, (Washington, DC, USA), pp. 276–279. IEEE Computer Society (2010)Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Nielsen, How dvrs are changing the television landscape. http://blog.nielsen.com/nielsenwire/media_entertainment/how-dvrs-are-changing-the-television-landscape/. Last accessed on 24 Feb 2012
  39. 39.
    Fernandes, S., Kelner, J., Sadok, D.: An adaptive-predictive architecture for video streaming servers. J. Netw. Comput. Appl. 34(5), 1683–1694 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Niels Bouten
    • 1
  • Steven Latré
    • 1
  • Wim Van de Meerssche
    • 1
  • Bart De Vleeschauwer
    • 2
  • Koen De Schepper
    • 2
  • Werner Van Leekwijck
    • 2
  • Filip De Turck
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Information TechnologyGhent University - iMindsGhentBelgium
  2. 2.Alcatel-Lucent Bell LabsAntwerpBelgium

Personalised recommendations