Behavioral Stability Across Time and Situations: Nonverbal Versus Verbal Consistency
- 444 Downloads
Behavioral consistency has been at the center of debates regarding the stability of personality. We argue that people are consistent but that such consistency is best observed in nonverbal behavior. In Study 1, participants’ verbal and nonverbal behaviors were observed in a mock interview and then in an informal interaction. In Study 2, medical students’ verbal and nonverbal behaviors were observed during first- and third-year clinical skills evaluation. Nonverbal behavior exhibited consistency across context and time (a duration of 2 years) whereas verbal behavior did not. Discussion focuses on implications for theories of personality and nonverbal behavior.
KeywordsConsistency Nonverbal behavior Individual differences
The project described was supported by NIMH grant F32MH078350 to the first author and by NIH grant R01 MH70833 to the fourth author. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institute of Mental Health or the National Institutes of Health.
- Ambady, N., Bernieri, F. J., & Richeson, J. A. (2000). Toward a histology of social behavior: Judgmental accuracy from thin slices of the behavioral stream. In M. P. Zanna (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology, 32 (pp. 201–272). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.Google Scholar
- DePaulo, B. M. (1992). Nonverbal behavior and self-presentation. Psychological Review, 111, 203–243.Google Scholar
- Hartshorne, H., & May, A. (1928). Studies in the nature of character, vol. 1, studies in deceit. New York: Macmillan.Google Scholar
- Mischel, W. (1968). Personality and assessment. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
- Scherer, K. R. (2005). Unconscious processes in emotion: The bulk of the iceberg. In L. F. Barrett, P. M. Niedenthal, & P. Winkielman (Eds.), Emotion and consciousness (pp. 312–334). New York, NY: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
- Tickle-Degnen, L., & Puccinelli, N. M. (1999). The nonverbal expression of negative emotions: Peer and supervisor responses to occupational therapy students’ emotional attributes. Occupational Therapy Journal of Research, 19, 18–29.Google Scholar
- Walker-Andrews, A. S. (2008). Intermodal emotional processes in infancy. In M. Lewis, J. M. Haviland, & L. Feldman-Barrett (Eds.), Handbook of emotions (pp. 364–375). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
- Zuckerman, M., DePaulo, B. M., & Rosenthal, R. (1981). Verbal and nonverbal communication of deception. In L. Berkowitz (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 14, pp. 1–59). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar