Assessment of Psychophysiological Response and Specific Fine Motor Skills in Combat Units

  • Joaquín Sánchez-Molina
  • José J. Robles-Pérez
  • Vicente J. Clemente-Suárez
Education & Training
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Emergent Visualization Systems in Biomedical Sciences (TEEM 2017)

Abstract

Soldiers´ training and experience can influence the outcome of the missions, as well as their own physical integrity. The objective of this research was to analyze the psycho-physiological response and specific motor skills in an urban combat simulation with two units of infantry with different training and experience. Material and Methods: psychophysiological parameters –Heart Rate, blood oxygen saturation, glucose and blood lactate, cortical activation, anxiety and heart rate variability-, as well as fine motor skills were analyzed in 31 male soldiers of the Spanish Army, 19 belonging to the Light Infantry Brigade, and 12 to the Heavy Forces Infantry Brigade, before and after an urban combat simulation. Results and Conclusion: A combat simulation provokes an alteration of the psycho-physiological basal state in soldiers and a great unbalance in the sympathetic-vagal interaction. The specific training of Light Infantry unit involves lower metabolic, cardiovascular, and anxiogenic response not only previous, but mainly after a combat maneuver, than Heavy Infantry unit’s. No differences were found in relation with fine motor skills, improving in both cases after the maneuver. This fact should be taken into account for betterment units´ deployment preparation in current theaters of operations.

Keywords

Lactate Heart rate variability Stress Anxiety Military Training 

Notes

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of Interest

None.

Ethical approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

References

  1. 1.
    Clemente-Suárez, V. J., de la Vega, R., Robles-Pérez, J. J., Lautenschlaeger, M., and Fernández-Lucas, J., Experience modulates the psychophysiological response of airborne warfighters during a tactical combat parachute jump. Int J Psychophysiol. 110:212–216, 2016.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2016.07.502.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Taylor, S. E., Klein, L. C., Lewis, B. P., Gruenewald, T. L., Gurung, R. A., and Updegraff, J. A., Biobehavioral responses to stress in females: tend-and-befriend, not fight-or-flight. Psychol Rev. 107(3):411, 2000.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.107.3.411.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Morgan, III, C. A., Hazlett, G., Wang, S., Richardson, Jr., E. G., Schnurr, P., and Southwick, S. M., Symptoms of dissociation in humans experiencing acute, uncontrollable stress: a prospective investigation. Am J Psychiatry. 158(8):1239–1247, 2001.  https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.158.8.1239.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Clemente-Suarez, V. J., and Robles-Perez, J. J., Mechanical, physical, and physiological analysis of symmetrical and asymmetrical combat. J Strength Cond Res. 27(9):2420–2426, 2013.  https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e31828055e9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Clemente-Suárez, V. J., Robles-Pérez, J. J., and Fernández-Lucas, J., Psycho-physiological response in an automatic parachute jump. J Sports Sci. 35(19):1872–1878, 2016.  https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2016.1240878.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Clemente-Suárez, V. J., Delgado-Moreno, R., González-Gómez, B., and Robles-Pérez, J., Respuesta psicofisiológica en un salto táctico paracaidista HAHO: caso de Estudio. Sanidad Militar. 71(3):179–182, 2015.  https://doi.org/10.4321/S1887-85712015000300004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Clemente-Suárez, V., and Robles-Perez, J., Psycho-physiological response of soldiers in urban combat. Anal Psicol. 29(2):598–603, 2013.  https://doi.org/10.6018/analesps.29.2.150691.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Clemente Suárez, V., and Robles Pérez, J., Respuesta orgánica en una simulación de combate. Sanidad militar. 68(2):97–100, 2012.  https://doi.org/10.4321/S1887-85712012000200006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Morgan, C. A., Doran, A., Steffian, G., Hazlett, G., and Southwick, S. M., Stress-induced deficits in working memory and visuo-constructive abilities in special operations soldiers. Biol Psychiatry. 60(7):722–729, 2006.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsych.2006.04.021.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Tan, G., Dao, T. K., Farmer, L., Sutherland, R. J., and Gevirtz, R., Heart rate variability (HRV) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD): A pilot study. Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback. 36(1):27–35, 2011.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10484-010-9141-y.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kang, H. K., Natelson, B. H., Mahan, C. M., Lee, K. Y., and Murphy, F. M., Post-traumatic stress disorder and chronic fatigue syndrome-like illness among Gulf War veterans: a population-based survey of 30,000 veterans. Am J Epidemiol. 157(2):141–148, 2003.  https://doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwf187.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Schlenger, W. E., Kulka, R. A., Fairbank, J. A., Hough, R. L., Kathleen Jordan, B., Marmar, C. R. et al., The prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder in the Vietnam generation: A multimethod, multisource assessment of psychiatric disorder. J Trauma Stress. 5(3):333–363, 1992.  https://doi.org/10.1002/jts.2490050303.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kowalczyk, E., and Kura, M., An influence of mental stress related to parachute jumping on ACTH and cortisol levels in blood serum. Psychiatr Pol. 46(5):731–742, 2012.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kalisch, R., Müller, M. B., and Tüscher, O., A conceptual framework for the neurobiological study of resilience. Behav Brain Sci. 38:e92, 2015.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0140525X1400082X.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Andersen, J. P., and Gustafsberg, H., A training method to improve police use of force decision making: a randomized controlled trial. SAGE Open 6(2), 2016.  https://doi.org/10.1177/2158244016638708.
  16. 16.
    Jamieson, J. P., Mendes, W. B., Blackstock, E., and Schmader, T., Turning the knots in your stomach into bows: Reappraising arousal improves performance on the GRE. J Exp Soc Psychol. 46(1):208–212, 2010.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jesp.2009.08.015.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Perroni, F., Tessitore, A., Cibelli, G., Lupo, C., D'Artibale, E., Cortis, C. et al., Effects of simulated firefighting on the responses of salivary cortisol, alpha-amylase and psychological variables. Ergonomics. 52(4):484–491, 2009.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00140130802707873.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Van Acker, A., Specific Stress Problems in Elite Units on Foreign Missions. KVÜÕA Toimetised. 10:64–74, 2008.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Li, G., Baker, S. P., Grabowski, J. G., Qiang, Y., McCarthy, M. L., and Rebok, G. W., Age, flight experience, and risk of crash involvement in a cohort of professional pilots. Am J Epidemiol. 157(10):874–880, 2003.  https://doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwg071.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Wang, Z., Zheng, L., Lu, Y., and Fu, S., Physiological Indices of Pilots’ Abilities Under Varying Task Demands. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 87(4):375–381, 2016.  https://doi.org/10.3357/AMHP.4386.2016.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Arnetz, B. B., Arble, E., Backman, L., Lynch, A., and Lublin, A., Assessment of a prevention program for work-related stress among urban police officers. Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 86(1):79–88, 2013.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00420-012-0748-6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Arnetz, B. B., Nevedal, D. C., Lumley, M. A., Backman, L., and Lublin, A., Trauma resilience training for police: Psychophysiological and performance effects. J Police Criminal Psychol. 24(1):1–9, 2009.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11896-008-9030-y.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Clemente-Suarez, V. J., and Robles-Pérez, J. J., Acute effects of caffeine supplementation on cortical arousal, anxiety, physiological response and marksmanship in close quarter combat. Ergonomics. 58(11):1842–1850, 2015.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00140139.2015.1036790.
  24. 24.
    Sánchez-Molina, J., Robles-Pérez, J. J., and Clemente-Suárez, V. J., Effect of parachute jump in the psychophysiological response of soldiers in urban combat. J Med Syst. 41(6):99, 2017.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10916-017-0749-9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Clemente-Suárez, V. J., Robles-Pérez, J. J., and Fernández-Lucas, J., Psychophysiological response in parachute jumps, the effect of experience and type of jump. Physiol Behav. 179(22):178–183, 2017.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.physbeh.2017.06.006.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Clemente-Suárez, V. J., Fernandes, R. J., Arroyo-Toledo, J., Figueiredo, P., González-Ravé, J. M., and Vilas-Boas, J., Autonomic adaptation after traditional and reverse swimming training periodizations. Acta Physiol Hung. 102(1):105–113, 2015.  https://doi.org/10.1556/APhysiol.102.2015.1.11.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Cox, R. H., Martens, M. P., and Russell, W. D., Measuring anxiety in athletics: The revised competitive state anxiety inventory-2. J Sport Exe Psychol. 25(4):519–533, 2003.  https://doi.org/10.1123/jsep.25.4.519.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Spielberger CD, Gorsuch RL, Lushene R, Cubero NS (1994) STAI: Cuestionario de ansiedad estado-rasgo. Tea Madrid.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Carter, J. B., Banister, E. W., and Blaber, A. P., The effect of age and gender on heart rate variability after endurance training. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 35(8):1333–1340, 2003.  https://doi.org/10.1249/01.MSS.0000079046.01763.8F.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Tulppo, M. P., Hautala, A. J., Makikallio, T. H., Laukkanen, R. T., Nissila, S., Hughson, R. L. et al., Effects of aerobic training on heart rate dynamics in sedentary subjects. J Appl Physiol. 95(1):364–372, 2003.  https://doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00751.2002.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Tenan, M. S., LaFiandra, M. E., and Ortega, S. V., The Effect of Soldier Marching, Rucksack Load, and Heart Rate on Marksmanship. Hum Factors. 59(2):259–267, 2016.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0018720816671604.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Frykman, P. N., Merullo, D. J., Banderet, L. E., Gregorczyk, K., and Hasselquist, L., Marksmanship deficits caused by an exhaustive whole-body lifting task with and without torso-borne loads. J Strength Cond Res. 26(Suppl 2):S30–S36, 2012.  https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e31825cedfa.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Renden, P. G., Landman, A., Geerts, S. F., Jansen, S. E. M., Faber, G. S., Savelsbergh, G. J. P. et al., Effects of anxiety on the execution of police arrest and self-defense skills. Anxiety, Stress, & Coping. 27(1):100–112, 2014.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10615806.2013.810213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Vickers, J. N., and Williams, A. M., Performing Under Pressure: The Effects of Physiological Arousal, Cognitive Anxiety, and Gaze Control in Biathlon. J Mot Behav. 39(5):381–394, 2007.  https://doi.org/10.3200/JMBR.39.5.381-394.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Neiss, R., Reconceptualizing arousal: psychobiological states in motor performance. Psychol Bull. 103(3):345, 1988.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.103.3.345.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Nieuwenhuys, A., Caljouw, S. R., Leijsen, M. R., Schmeits, B. A. J., and Oudejans, R. R. D., Quantifying police officers' arrest and self-defence skills: Does performance decrease under pressure? Ergonomics. 52(12):1460–1468, 2009.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00140130903287981.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Oudejans, R. R. D., and Pijpers, J. R., Training with anxiety has a positive effect on expert perceptual–motor performance under pressure. Q J Exp Psychol. 62(8):1631–1647, 2009.  https://doi.org/10.1080/17470210802557702.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Aubert, A. E., Seps, B., and Beckers, F., Heart rate variability in athletes. Sports Med. 33(12):889–919, 2003.  https://doi.org/10.2165/00007256-200333120-00003.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Roldas, G., Pedrel Carballido, C., Capdevila, L., and Villegas García, J., Variabilidad de la frecuencia cardíaca: concepto, medidas y relación con aspectos clínicos (I). Arch med deporte. 123:41–47, 2008.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Delgado-Moreno, R., Robles-Pérez, J. J., and Clemente-Suárez, V. J., Combat Stress Decreases Memory of Warfighters in Action. J Med Syst. 41(8):124, 2017.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10916-017-0772-x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Podstawski, R., Boraczyński, M., Nowosielska-Swadźba, D., and Zwolińska, D., Heart rate variability during pre-competition and competition periods in volleyball players. Biomed Hum Kin. 6(1), 2014.  https://doi.org/10.2478/bhk-2014-0004.
  42. 42.
    Clemente-Suárez, V. J., Psychophysiological response and energy balance during a 14-h ultraendurance mountain running event. Appl Physiol Nut Met. 40(3):269–273, 2014.  https://doi.org/10.1139/apnm-2014-0263.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Belinchon-de Miguel, P., and Clemente-Suárez, V. J., Psychophysiological, Body Composition, Biomechanical and Autonomic Modulation Analysis Procedures in an Ultraendurance Mountain Race. J. Med. Syst. 42(2):32, 2018.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10916-017-0889-y.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Drain, J. R., Groeller, H., Burley, S. D., and Nindl, B. C., Hormonal response patterns are differentially influenced by physical conditioning programs during basic military training. J Sci Med Sport 20(4):98–103, 2018.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2017.08.020.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Clemente-Suárez, V. J., The application of cortical arousal assessment to control neuromuscular fatigue during strength training. J Mot Behav. 49(4):429–434, 2017.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00222895.2016.1241741.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Sjödin, B., and Jacobs, I., Onset of blood lactate accumulation and marathon running performance. Int J Sports Med. 2(01):23–26, 1981.  https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2008-1034579.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Clemente-Suarez, V. J., and Arroyo-Toledo, J. J., Traditional periodization upgrade sport performance and heart rate variability of experienced triathletes. Imp J Interdis Res. 3(6):750–755, 2017.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Arruda, A. F., Aoki, M. S., Paludo, A. C., and Moreira, A., Salivary steroid response and competitive anxiety in elite basketball players: Effect of opponent level. Physiol Behav. 177:291–296, 2017.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.physbeh.2017.05.017.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Kagan, S., Koruc, Z., and Latifoglu, G., Comparison of Psychological and Physiological Changes of the Anxiety in Various Sports. Revista de Cercetare si Interventie Sociala. 56:44–56, 2017.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Sport SciencesUniversidad Europea de MadridMadridSpain
  2. 2.Studies Centre in Applied Combat (CESCA)ToledoSpain
  3. 3.Light Forces Head Quarter of the Spanish ArmyMadridSpain
  4. 4.Grupo de Investigación en Cultura, Educación y SociedadUniversidad de la CostaBarranquillaColombia

Personalised recommendations