Inalambric Biofeedback Devices to Analyze Strength Manifestation in Military Population

  • Rosa Delgado-Moreno
  • José Juan Robles-Pérez
  • Susana Aznar
  • Vicente Javier Clemente-Suarez
Education & Training
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Convergence of Deep Machine Learning and Nature Inspired Computing Paradigms for Medical Informatics


The study of the effect of stress on both combatants physiological and anatomical systems have been poor studied in the specific literature. The present research aimed to study the effect of combat stress in strength manifestations of leg flexor-extensor muscles and the anaerobic metabolism of soldiers. Before and after asymmetrical combat simulation were analyzed parameters of blood lactate concentration, explosive leg strength manifestation and contractile capacity of leg muscle in 186 professional soldiers. Results showed a significant increase (p < 0.05) in blood lactate values (2.23 ± 0.95 vs 7.47 ± 3.67 mmol/L), explosive leg strength (Squat Jump 0.31 ± 0.06 vs 0.35 ± 0.07 m, Countermovement Jump 0.33 ± 0.07 vs 0.36 ± 0.07 m, Abalakov Jump 0.39 ± 0.08 vs 0.41 ± 0.09 m), and a significant decrease of the elastic capacity (0.022 ± 0.04 vs 0.021 ± 0.04) and recruitment and muscle synchronization capability (0.028 ± 0.04 vs 0.026 ± 0.04). This data suggest that combat stress increases the leg strength manifestation despite the significantly increase of muscle acidosis after a combat simulation. This result is probably due to the high activation of the fight-flight system of soldiers which increases the organic response of soldiers and that can compensate the prejudicial effect of acidosis in muscle contraction. These results could be used by officers to improve specific training programs and to improve planning and election of equipment and material for the development of different missions in current theaters of operations.


Fight-flight system Combat stress Lactate Soldier Jump Training 



The authors are grateful to Central School of Physical Education of the Spanish Army Academy and the Light Brigades of the Spanish Army that collaborated to carry out the present research.

Compliance with Ethical Standars

Conflict of Interest


Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informend Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rosa Delgado-Moreno
    • 1
    • 2
  • José Juan Robles-Pérez
    • 1
    • 3
  • Susana Aznar
    • 2
  • Vicente Javier Clemente-Suarez
    • 1
    • 4
    • 5
  1. 1.Center for Higher Studies in Applied CombatToledoSpain
  2. 2.PAFS Research Group, Faculty of Sports SciencesUniversity of Castilla-La ManchaToledoSpain
  3. 3.Light Forces Head Quarter of the Spanish ArmyMadridSpain
  4. 4.Applied Psychophysiological Research GroupEuropean University of MadridMadridSpain
  5. 5.Faculty of Sport Sciences, Department of MotricityHuman Performance and Sport ManagementMadridSpain

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