Journal of Medical Systems

, 37:9918 | Cite as

A secure steganography for privacy protection in healthcare system

Original Paper


Private data in healthcare system require confidentiality protection while transmitting. Steganography is the art of concealing data into a cover media for conveying messages confidentially. In this paper, we propose a steganographic method which can provide private data in medical system with very secure protection. In our method, a cover image is first mapped into a 1D pixels sequence by Hilbert filling curve and then divided into non-overlapping embedding units with three consecutive pixels. We use adaptive pixel pair match (APPM) method to embed digits in the pixel value differences (PVD) of the three pixels and the base of embedded digits is dependent on the differences among the three pixels. By solving an optimization problem, minimal distortion of the pixel ternaries caused by data embedding can be obtained. The experimental results show our method is more suitable to privacy protection of healthcare system than prior steganographic works.


Privacy protection Healthcare system Steganography Pixel value difference Hilbert filling curve Adaptive pixel pair match 



This work is partially supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China under the grant number 61101112, and Postdoctoral Science Foundation of China under the grant number 2011M500775. The authors would like to thank Prof. Hong at Yu Da University, Taiwan, for providing us the source code in [10].


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Zhengzhou Information Science and Technology InstituteZhengzhouChina

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