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Lipid Transport in the Lactating Mammary Gland

  • James L. McManaman
Article

Abstract

Mammalian cells depend on phospholipid (PL) and fatty acid (FA) transport to maintain membrane structure and organization, and to fuel and regulate cellular functions. In mammary glands of lactating animals, copious milk secretion, including large quantities of lipid in some species, requires adaptation and integration of PL and FA synthesis and transport processes to meet secretion demands. At present few details exist about how these processes are regulated within the mammary gland. However, recent advances in our understanding of the structural and molecular biology of membrane systems and cellular lipid trafficking provide insights into the mechanisms underlying the regulation and integration of PL and FA transport processes the lactating mammary gland. This review discusses the PL and FA transport processes required to maintain the structural integrity and organization of the mammary gland and support its secretory functions within the context of current molecular and cellular models of their regulation.

Keywords

Biosynthesis Lactation Lipids Mammary gland Membranes Transport mechanisms 

Abbreviations

ABC

ATP-binding cassette

ACSL

Acyl-coA synthetase

ApoA1

Apolipoprotein A1

ATP

Adenosine triphosphate

Cept

Choline-ethanolamine phosphotransferase

CER

Common endosome recycling

CERT

Ceramide transport protein

CLD

Cytoplasmic lipid droplets

Cpt

CDP-choline phosphotransferase

DAG

Diacylglycerol

FA

Fatty acid

FAT

Fatty acid translocase

FATP

Fatty acid transport protein

ER

Endoplasmic reticulum

LCFA

Long-chain fatty acids

LPL

Lipoprotein lipase

LTP

Lipid transport proteins

MAM

Mitochondrial associated membranes

MFG

Milk fat globule

PC

Phosphatidylcholine

PE

Phosphatidylethanolamine

Pemt

Phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase

PI

Phosphatidylinositol

PL

Phospholipid

PS

Phosphatidylserine

PSS1

Phosphotidyserine synthase 1

PSS2

Phosphotidyserine synthase 2

SL

Sphingolipids

SM

Sphingomyelin

SV

Secretory vesicle

Notes

Acknowledgments

Supported by National Institutes of Health grants 5R01-HD045962, 1R01-HD075285 and P01-HD38129.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Basic Reproductive SciencesUniversity of Colorado School of MedicineAuroraUSA

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