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Mammary Stroma in Development and Carcinogenesis

  • Teruyo Sakakura
  • Yuka Suzuki
  • Robert Shiurba
Article

Abstract

Mammary glands of adult human females are secretory organs comprised of interdependent epithelial and mesenchymal cells. These cells constitute an assemblage of collecting ducts that end in terminal duct lobular units with hollow alveolar ductules that can differentiate to produce and expel milk. Systemic and maternal hormones, autocrine and paracrine growth factors, and cytokines regulate virtually all phases of mammary gland development. During organogenesis, epithelial and mesenchymal cells interact to form precursors of the parenchyma and stroma in the mature gland. Organogenesis precedes five stages of postnatal development: puberty, pregnancy, lactation, involution, and menopause. Each stage requires a specific set of morphogenetic changes in glandular structure and function. Cycles of cell proliferation, differentiation, and involution may recur until menopause. In addition, physiological responses such as inflammation and pathological events such as tumorigenesis are remarkable for their similarities to embryonic morphogenesis. Here we take a succinct look at the ever-improving understanding of stroma–epithelial interactions and mesenchyme function in mammary gland biology.

Keywords

Mammary gland Stroma Development Carcinogenesis 

Abbreviations

BMP4

Bone morphogenetic protein 4

DMM

Dense mammary mesenchyme

E

Embryonic day

FGF10

Fibroblast growth factor 10 protein

Fgf10

Fibroblast growth factor 10 gene

FP

Fat pad precursor

Gli3

Glioma-associated zinc finger 3 transcription factor

ME

Mammary epithelium

Nu/Nu

Immunodeficient athymic Foxn1nu mouse

PTHrP

Parathyroid hormone-related peptide

SCID

Severe combined immunodeficiency

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Mie UniversityTsu-shiJapan
  2. 2.Graduate School of Regional Innovation StudiesMie UniversityTsu-shiJapan
  3. 3.Integrative Bioscience and Biomedical EngineeringWaseda UniversityTokyoJapan

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