Probing the Microenvironment of Mammary Tumors Using Multiphoton Microscopy

  • Mazen Sidani
  • Jeffrey Wyckoff
  • Chengsen Xue
  • Jeffrey E. Segall
  • John Condeelis


Advances in optical imaging technologies that allow the subcellular resolution of undissected tissue have begun to offer new clues into the biology of development and disease. For cancer, such advances mean that the primary tumor is no longer a black box and that the disease can be studied throughout the metastatic cascade and not just as an endpoint. In this review we examine the advances in multiphoton imaging technology that have been used to define the microenvironment and its role in delineating the invasion and intravasation steps of metastasis inside living mammary tumors. Results show that the tumor microenvironment is a dynamic place where interactions between tumor cells, macrophages, blood vessels, and extracellular matrix fibers define the metastatic phenotype.


Intravital imaging GFP Real-time imaging Breast cancer Second harmonic generation 



extracellular matrix


multiphoton-based intravital imaging


second harmonic generation


matrix metallo-proteases


green fluorescent protein


cyan fluorescent protein



The authors would like to thank current and former laboratory members for their contributions to the work discussed in this review. The research summarized here was supported by CA100324.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mazen Sidani
    • 1
  • Jeffrey Wyckoff
    • 1
    • 2
  • Chengsen Xue
    • 1
  • Jeffrey E. Segall
    • 1
  • John Condeelis
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Anatomy and Structural BiologyAlbert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva UniversityBronxUSA
  2. 2.Analytical Imaging FacilityAlbert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva UniversityBronxUSA

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