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Calcium Sensing by the Mammary Gland

  • Joshua N. VanHouten
Article

Abstract

Calcium is an important nutrient that is secreted into milk in quantities that put a considerable stress upon maternal calcium homeostasis. Here we summarize the evidence that two important entities, the extracellular calcium-sensing receptor (CaR) and parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) are involved in a feedback loop that regulates calcium fluxes to the mammary gland. The CaR may also play a role in regulating milk secretion, and may regulate the proliferation of normal and neoplastic mammary epithelial cells. Finally, the relationship between the CaR and PTHrP in breast cancer cells may promote the formation of osteolytic bone metastases.

Keywords

calcium-sensing receptor lactation calcium metabolism bone PTHrP 

Abbreviations:

BLG

β-lactoglobulin

CaR

calcium-sensing receptor

DCT

distal convoluted tubule

GPCR

G-protein-coupled receptor

PLA2

phospholipase A2

PLC

phospholipase C

PLD

phospholipase D

PMCA

plasma membrane calcium-ATPase

PTH

parathyroid hormone

PTHrP

parathyroid hormone-related protein

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Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media, Inc. 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal MedicineYale University School of MedicineNew Haven

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