Journal of Mathematical Chemistry

, Volume 40, Issue 2, pp 105–117 | Cite as

Twisted Surfaces

  • Victor A. Nicholson

This article proves the laundry embedding theorem. It considers surface triples (S,G,J) in S 3 where S is a 2-manifold with boundary, G is a circle-with-chords, and J is an arc. The surfaces satisfy an embedding condition called laundry which is similar to being unknotted. The theorem gives elementary necessary and sufficient conditions for two triples to be equivalent by ambient isotopy. The theorem introduces a new topological invariant called turn. The surfaces of interest can arise from the augmented ribbon model of unknotted single domain protein.


surface linking protein 

AMS subject classification

57M25 57M15 92C40 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Mathematical SciencesKent State UniversityKentUSA

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