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Journal of Low Temperature Physics

, Volume 184, Issue 1–2, pp 389–395 | Cite as

Developments in Time-Division Multiplexing of X-ray Transition-Edge Sensors

  • W. B. Doriese
  • K. M. Morgan
  • D. A. Bennett
  • E. V. Denison
  • C. P. Fitzgerald
  • J. W. Fowler
  • J. D. Gard
  • J. P. Hays-Wehle
  • G. C. Hilton
  • K. D. Irwin
  • Y. I. Joe
  • J. A. B. Mates
  • G. C. O’Neil
  • C. D. Reintsema
  • N. O. Robbins
  • D. R. Schmidt
  • D. S. Swetz
  • H. Tatsuno
  • L. R. Vale
  • J. N. Ullom
Article

Abstract

Time-division multiplexing (TDM) is a mature scheme for the readout of arrays of transition-edge sensors (TESs). TDM is based on superconducting-quantum-interference-device (SQUID) current amplifiers. Multiple spectrometers based on gamma-ray and X-ray microcalorimeters have been operated with TDM readout, each at the scale of 200 sensors per spectrometer, as have several astronomical cameras with thousands of sub-mm or microwave bolometers. Here we present the details of two different versions of our TDM system designed to read out X-ray TESs. The first has been field-deployed in two 160-sensor (8 columns \(\times \) 20 rows) spectrometers and four 240-sensor (8 columns \(\times \) 30 rows) spectrometers. It has a three-SQUID-stage architecture, switches rows every 320 ns, and has total readout noise of 0.41 \(\mu \Phi _{\mathrm {0}} / \surd \)Hz. The second, which is presently under development, has a two-SQUID-stage architecture, switches rows every 160 ns, and has total readout noise of 0.19 \(\mu \Phi _{\mathrm {0}} / \surd \)Hz. Both quoted noise values are non-multiplexed and referred to the first-stage SQUID. In a demonstration of this new architecture, a multiplexed 1-column \(\times \) 32-row array of NIST TESs achieved average energy resolution of \(2.55\pm 0.01\) eV at 6 keV.

Keywords

SQUID Transition-edge sensor Time-division multiplexer Microcalorimeter X-ray 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The cryogenic-microcalorimeter group at NASA’s Goddard Spaceflight Center aided this work with frequent and fruitful discussions regarding readout of arrays of X-ray TESs as part of the Athena satellite program. We gratefully acknowledge financial support from the NASA APRA and SAT programs as well as the NIST Innovations in Measurement Science program. Mention of specific op-amps in Section 2 does not imply endorsement of these products, either by NIST or by the authors. Contribution of an agency of the United States Government; not subject to copyright.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York (outside the USA) 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • W. B. Doriese
    • 1
  • K. M. Morgan
    • 1
  • D. A. Bennett
    • 1
  • E. V. Denison
    • 1
  • C. P. Fitzgerald
    • 1
  • J. W. Fowler
    • 1
  • J. D. Gard
    • 1
  • J. P. Hays-Wehle
    • 1
  • G. C. Hilton
    • 1
  • K. D. Irwin
    • 2
  • Y. I. Joe
    • 1
  • J. A. B. Mates
    • 1
  • G. C. O’Neil
    • 1
  • C. D. Reintsema
    • 1
  • N. O. Robbins
    • 1
  • D. R. Schmidt
    • 1
  • D. S. Swetz
    • 1
  • H. Tatsuno
    • 1
  • L. R. Vale
    • 1
  • J. N. Ullom
    • 1
  1. 1.National Institute of Standards and TechnologyBoulderUSA
  2. 2.Stanford University Department of PhysicsStanfordUSA

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