Acoustic Emission by Quartz Tuning Forks and Other Oscillating Structures in Cryogenic 4He Fluids
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We report on experimental investigations of acoustic emission by quartz tuning forks resonating at frequencies 32 kHz, 38 kHz, 77 kHz and 100 kHz immersed in cold gaseous 4He and its normal and superfluid liquid phases. Frequency dependence of the observed low-drive-linewidth at 350 mK together with the temperature and pressure dependences (1.3 K < T < 4.2 K, 0 < p < 25 bar) of the observed damping of the high frequency (77 and 100 kHz) resonators measured in normal liquid 4He and its superfluid phase provide strong and direct evidence of the importance of sound emission by these tuning forks. Three analytical models of acoustic emission by vibrating tuning forks are developed and compared with the experimental results. We also discuss the importance of sound emission for experiments with the commonly used 32 kHz tuning forks as well as other oscillating structures—spheres, wires, grids and various micromachined sensors. We compare the relative importance of dissipative losses due to laminar viscous/ballistic drag and acoustic emission in liquid and superfluid 4He.
KeywordsQuartz tuning fork Cryogenic helium Acoustic emission
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