Transport and Dispersal of Stictococcus Vayssierei (Hemiptera, Stictococcidae) by Anoplolepis Tenella (Hymenoptera, Formicidae)
- 148 Downloads
Dispersal can be a crucial factor affecting fitness in insects. We conducted a series of experiments and observations with the aim of determining the dispersal mode of the African root and tuber scale Stictococcus vayssierei, a pest on cassava in the Congo Basin. We monitored the main options of dispersal that occurred in scale insects: wandering of first-instar nymphs (crawlers), active dispersal by ant workers, phoresis on colony-founding queen ants, and passive dispersal by wind. Results showed that A. tenella workers are actively involved in the transport and dissemination of scale crawlers. When ants were excluded, crawlers could move by themselves for a short distance to find the host plant. In the presence of ants, crawlers were transported by ant workers for longer distance across the bridge and established on scale-free plants. Scales transport increased with the duration of the experiment and ant density. Neither a case of phoresis nor dispersal by wind was recorded, suggesting that passive dispersal is rare. These results outline the active role of A. tenella workers in the dispersal of immature stages of S. vayssierei in Southern Cameroon and have implication in the management of the scale on cassava.
KeywordsAnoplolepis tenella Stictococcus vayssierei active dispersal wind dispersal phoresis
This work was supported by special project funds provided to the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture by the Research Fellow Partnership Program (RFPP) and the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD).
- Greathead DJ (1990) Crawler behaviour and dispersal. In: Rosen D (ed) Armored scale insects: their biology, natural enemies and control. Elsevier Scientific Publishers, Amsterdam, pp 305–308Google Scholar
- Greathead DJ (1997) Crawler behaviour and dispersal. In: Ben-Dov, Y and Hodgson, C J (ed) Soft scale insects - their biology, natural enemies and control, Elsevier Science BV, pp 339–342Google Scholar
- Gullan PJ (1997) Relationship with ants. In: Ben-Dov Y and Hodgson CJ (ed) Soft scale insects - their biology, natural enemies and control. Elsevier Science BV, pp 351–373Google Scholar
- Handa C, Ueda S, Tanaka H, Takao Itino T, Itioka T (2012) How do scale insects settle into the nests of plant-ants on Macaranga Myrmecophytes? Dispersal by wind and selection by plant-ants sociobiology 59:1–12Google Scholar
- Hanna R, Tindo M, Wijnans L, Goergen G, Tata Hangy K, Lema K, Toko M, Ngeve JM, Dixon A, Gockowski J (2004) The African root and tuber scale problem in Central Africa: the nature of the problem and the search for control options. In: Book of Abstracts of the 9th Triennial Symposium of the International Society for Tropical Root Crops - Africa Branch, 31 October–5 November 2004, Mombasa, Kenya, pp 57Google Scholar
- Kishimoto-Yamada K, Itioka T, Kawai S (2005) Biological characterization of the obligate symbiosis between Acropyga sauteri Forel (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and Eumyrmococcus smithii Silvestri (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae: Rhizoecinae) on OkinawaIsland, southern Japan. J Nat Hist 39(40):3501–3524CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- SAS (2008) SAS software 92. SAS Institute Inc, CaryGoogle Scholar
- Smith MR (1942) The relationship of ants and other organisms to certain scale insects on coffee in Puerto Rico. J Agr Univ Puert Rico 26:21–27Google Scholar
- Williams ML (1997) The immature stages. In: Ben-Dov Y and Hodgson CJ (ed) Soft scale insects - their biology, natural enemies and control. Elsevier Science BV, pp 31–48Google Scholar