A novel electrochemical sensor based on ion imprinted polymers and gold nanoparticles was fabricated for selective and sensitive determination of Cd (II) ion in real samples. Ion imprinted polymers synthesized by conventional precipitation polymerization methods may have the problem in embedding the imprinting sites too deeply. Thereby, the surface imprinting technology by attaching the imprinted material on the surface of the silicon sphere was used to increase the quantity of the imprinting site, and enhances the adsorption performance of the imprinted material. Moreover, thiosemicarbamide functionalized chitosan and methacrylic acid were selected as functional monomers to synthesize the ion imprinted polymers, which enhanced the coordination ability of Cd (II) ions. Also, the electrochemical performance of the electrochemical sensor was well improved by doping gold nanoparticles in the polymer. The morphologies of the obtained imprinted composites were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy. The electrochemical behavior of the imprinted polymers was characterized by CV, DPV and EIS. As a result, the fabricated sensor showed a good selectivity toward target Cd (II) ions. Under optimized experimental conditions, the electrochemical sensor showed a good linear relationship in the range of 10–9 to 10–4 mol/L with a low limit detection of 1.43 × 10–10 mol/L. The improved sensor not only possesses good selectivity and high sensitivity, but also exhibits excellent repeatability and stability. Finally, the proposed electrochemical sensor was successfully applied to the determination of trace Cd (II) ions in real samples.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
G.V.M. Fabry, N. Lombaert, D. Lison, Dietary exposure to cadmium and risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Environ Int. 86, 1–13 (2016)
B. Bansod, T. Kumar, R. Thakur, S. Rana, I. Singh, A review on various electrochemical techniques for heavy metal ions detection with different sensing platforms. Biosens. Bioelectron. 94, 443–455 (2017)
L. Farzin, M. Shamsipur, S. Sheibani, A review: Aptamer-based analytical strategies using the nanomaterials for environmental and human monitoring of toxic heavy metals. Talanta 174, 619–627 (2017)
M.G. Motlagh, M.A. Taher, Novel imprinted polymeric nanoparticles prepared by sol–gel technique for electrochemical detection of toxic cadmium(II) ions. Chem. Eng. J. 327, 135–141 (2017)
J. Wang, J. Hu, S. Hu, G. Gao, Y. Song, A novel electrochemical sensor based on electropolymerized ion imprinted PoPD/ERGO composite for trace Cd(II) determination in water. Sensors 20, 1004 (2020)
Y. Li, T. Xia, J. Zhang, Y. Cui, B. Li, Y. Yang, G. Qian, A manganese-based metal-organic framework electrochemical sensor for highly sensitive cadmium ions detection. J. Solid State Chem. 275, 38–42 (2019)
J. Komarek, P. Krasensky, J. Balcar, P. Rehulka, Determination of palladium and platinum by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry after deposition on a graphite tube. Spectrochim. Acta Part B. 54, 739–743 (1999)
Y. Fang, B. Cui, J. Huang, L. Wang, Ultrasensitive electrochemical sensor for simultaneous determination of cadmium and lead ions based on one-step co-electropolymerization strategy. Sens. Actuators B 284, 414–420 (2019)
D.C. Lambkin, B.J. Alloway, The problem of arsenic interference in the analysis of soils for cadmium by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry. Sci. Total Environ. 256, 77–81 (2000)
W. Ji, Y. Wang, I. Tanabe, X. Han, B. Zhao, Y. Ozaki, Semiconductor-driven “turn-off” surfaceenhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy: application in selective determination of chromium(VI) in water. Chem. Sci. 6, 342–348 (2015)
M. Gawin, J. Konefał, B. Trzewik, S. Walas, A. Tobiasz, H. Mrowiec, E. Witek, Preparation of a new Cd(II)-imprinted polymer and its application to determination of cadmium(II) via flow-injection-flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Talanta 80, 1305–1310 (2010)
V. Yilmaz, H. Yilmaz, Z. Arslan, J. Leszczynski, Novel imprinted polymer for the preconcentration of cadmium with determination by inductively voupled plasma mass spectrometry. Anal. Lett. 50, 482–499 (2017)
K.A. Sarpong, K. Zhang, Y. Luan, Y. Cao, W. Xu, Development and application of a novel electrochemical sensor based on aunps and difunctional monomer-mips for the selective determination of tetrabromobisphenol-s in water samples. Microchem. J. 154, 104526 (2020)
K. Zhang, A.S. Kwabena, N. Wang, Y. Lu, Y. Cao, Y. Luan, T. Liu, H. Peng, X. Gu, W. Xu, Electrochemical assays for the detection of tbbpa in plastic products based on RGO/AgNDs nanocomposites and molecularly imprinted polymers. J. Electroanal. Chem. 862, 114022 (2020)
S.A. Kitte, S. Lia, A. Nsabimana, W. Gao, J. Lai, Z. Liu, G. Xu, Stainless steel electrode for simultaneous stripping analysis of Cd(II), Pb(II), Cu(II) and Hg(II). Talanta 191, 485–490 (2019)
A. Aravind, B. Mathew, Electrochemical sensor based on nanostructured ion imprinted polymer for the sensing and extraction of Cr(III) ions from industrial wastewater. Polym. Int. 67, 1595–1604 (2018)
W. Huang, P. Jiang, X. Yin, L. Zhang, S. Zhao, H. Zhou, X. Ni, W. Xu, Selective enrichment-release of trace dibutyl phthalate via molecular-imprinting based photo-controlled switching followed by high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. J. Sep. Sci. 44, 513–520 (2021).
W. Xu, M. Gao, X. Yin, L. Zhang, Y. Cao, Y. Zhang, W. Huang, Photo-stimulated “turn-on/off” molecularly imprinted polymers based on magnetic mesoporous silicon surface for efficient detection of sulfamerazine. J Sep Sci. 43, 2550–2557 (2020)
W. Yang, Y. Qing, Y. Cao, Y. Luan, Y. Lu, T. Liu, W. Xu, W. Huang, T. Li, X. Ni, A stimuli response, core-shell structured and surface molecularly imprinted polymers with specific pH for rapid and selective detection of sulfamethoxazole from milk sample. React. Funct. Polym. 151, 104578 (2020)
A. Aravind, B. Mathew, Tailoring of nanostructured material as an electrochemical sensor and sorbent for toxic Cd(II) ions from various real samples. J. Anal. Sci. Technol. 9, 22 (2018)
M. Dinari, R. Tabatabaeian, Ultra-fast and highly efficient removal of cadmium ions by magnetic layered double hydroxide/guargum bionanocomposites. Carbohydr. Polym. 192, 317–326 (2018)
A. Adauto, S. Khan, M.A. Silva, J.A.G. Neto, G. Picasso, M.P.T. Sotomayor, Synthesis, characterization and application of a novel ion hybrid imprinted polymer to adsorb Cd(II) in different samples. Environ. Res. 187, 109669 (2020)
W. Xu, Y. Zhang, X. Yin, L. Zhang, Y. Cao, X. Ni, W. Huang, Highly sensitive electrochemical BPA sensor based on titanium nitride-reduced graphene oxide composite and core-shell molecular imprinting particles. Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 413, 1081–1090 (2021)
Y. Zhang, W. Huang, X. Yin, K. A. Sarpong, L. Zhang, Y. Li, S. Zhao, H. Zhou, W. Yang, W. Xu, Computer-aided design and synthesis of molecular imprinting polymers based on doubly oriented functional multiwalled carbon nanotubes for electrochemically sensing bisphenol A. React. Funct. Polym. 157, 104767 (2020)
W. Huang, X. Zhou, Y. Luan, Y. Cao, N. Wang, Y. Lu, T. Liu, W. Xu, A sensitive electrochemical sensor modified with multi-walled carbon nanotubes doped molecularly imprinted silica nanospheres for detecting chlorpyrifos. J. Sep. Sci. 43, 954–961 (2020)
H. Liu, Y. Zhou, Y. Qi, Z. Sun, B. Gong, Preparation of thiamphenicol magnetic surface molecularly imprinted polymers for its selective recognition of thiamphenicol in milk samples. J. Liq. Chromatogr. Relat. Technol. 41, 868–879 (2018)
Z. Long, W. Xu, Y. Lu, H. Qiu, Nanosilica-based molecularly imprinted polymer nanoshell for specific recognition and determination of rhodamine B in red wine and beverages. J. Chromatogr. B 1029–1030, 230–238 (2016)
S.X. Lee, H.N. Lim, I. Ibrahim, A. Jamil, A. Pandikumar, N.M. Huang, Horseradish peroxidase-labeled silver/reduced graphene oxide thin film-modified screen-printed electrode for detection of carcinoembryonic antigen. Biosens. Bioelectron. 89, 673–680 (2017)
G. Sun, J. Lu, S. Ge, X. Song, J. Yu, M. Yan, J. Huang, Ultrasensitive electrochemical immunoassay for carcinoembryonic antigen based on three-dimensional macroporous gold nanoparticles/graphene composite platform and multienzyme functionalized nanoporous silver label. Anal. Chim. Acta. 775, 85–92 (2013)
W. Stöber, A. Fink, E. Bohn, Controlled growth of monodisperse silica spheres in the micron size range. J. Colloid Interface Sci. 26, 62–69 (1968)
This work was financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 21677064), Science and Technology Planning Social Development Project of Jiangsu Province (No. BE2018694), Science and Technology Planning Modern Agriculture Project of Zhenjiang City (No. NY2019014), the Fifth phase “169 Project” training fund of Zhenjiang and Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center of Technology and Material of Water Treatment.
Conflict of interest
The authors of this manuscript declare no conflicts of interest.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
About this article
Cite this article
Huang, W., Liu, Y., Wang, N. et al. A Sensitive Electrochemical Sensor Based on Ion Imprinted Polymers with Gold Nanoparticles for High Selective Detecting Cd (II) Ions in Real Samples. J Inorg Organomet Polym (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10904-021-01892-8
- Electrochemical sensor
- Ion imprinted polymers
- Thiosemicarbamide functionalized chitosan
- Gold nanoparticles
- Cadmium (II)