One Step Synthesis of Nitrogen-Doped Graphene from Naphthalene and Urea by Atmospheric Chemical Vapor Deposition

  • Ali A. Dadkhah
  • Mohammad Rabiee Faradonbeh
  • Alimorad Rashidi
  • Saeideh Tasharofi
  • Firozeh Mansourkhani


Heavy metal pollutants in wastewater are a major environmental concern. In order to fabricate metal organic composite for adsorption of these pollutants, in a first step a pristine and several nitrogen doped graphene films were synthesized by chemical vapor deposition method. Preparation of graphene films was performed through a one-step co-growth of naphthalene and urea mixture as an inexpensive and easy technique to handle solid precursors. This was done over a copper catalyst at different growth temperatures. Different characterization methods including Raman spectroscopy, elemental analysis, and X-ray diffraction confirmed the quality of the pristine and doped graphene. This technique showed an increasing trend of the doping level (nitrogen concentration up to 5.1% overall) as the growth temperature decreased. Results showed that both nitrogen doping, and carrying the synthesis at higher temperatures increase the defects and wrinkles in the graphene. Furthermore, doping introduced a light shift in defect types from vacancy in pristine graphene to boundary type in nitrogen-doped samples, which are favorable for functionalization for environmental applications.


Nitrogen-doped graphene Layered compounds Nano structures Chemical vapor deposition MOF Heavy metal removal 



The financial support for this research by Research Institute of Petroleum Industry (RIPI), Graduate office of Isfahan University of Technology, and Iran Nanotechnology Initiative Council is greatly appreciated.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.

Supplementary material

10904_2018_853_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (1.1 mb)
Supplementary material 1 (PDF 1106 KB)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Chemical EngineeringIsfahan University of TechnologyIsfahanIran
  2. 2.Research Institute of Petroleum Industry (RIPI)TehranIran
  3. 3.Research Institute of Petroleum Industry (RIPI), Research Group of Ecology and Environmental PollutionTehranIran
  4. 4.School of Chemistry, College of ScienceUniversity of TehranTehranIran

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