Haitian Immigrants and Type 2 Diabetes: An Integrative Review

  • Cherlie Magny-NormilusEmail author
  • Robin Whittemore
Review Paper


Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a complex, lifelong condition that is disproportionately prevalent among minority populations. Haitian immigrants (HIs) living in the US with T2D have unique factors that influence diagnosis, treatment, and self-management. The purpose of this integrative review was to provide a synthesis of the research on T2D in the HI population. In a systematic literature search, 14 studies met the inclusion criteria. Three themes were identified: risk factors for less self-management and/or worse metabolic control; protective factors for better self-management and/or metabolic control; and mixed results. HIs had higher HbA1c, yet better self-management, different genetic profiles, and lower levels of vitamin D and hemoglobin concentration compared to other ethnic groups. HIs also reported better dietary quality, less healthcare utilization, and higher perceived emotional/psychological stress compared to other ethnic groups. This study has implications for practice for integrating the unique cultural factors when assessing and intervening with HIs.


T2D risks Haitian immigrants Integrative review Diabetes self-management 



This work was supported by National Institute of Nursing Research of the National Institutes of Health under Award Number T32NR008346.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

Authors declare no potential conflicts of interest with respect to the research, authorship, or publication of this article.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Yale School of NursingYale UniversityWest HavenUSA

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