Haitian Immigrants and Type 2 Diabetes: An Integrative Review
- 51 Downloads
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a complex, lifelong condition that is disproportionately prevalent among minority populations. Haitian immigrants (HIs) living in the US with T2D have unique factors that influence diagnosis, treatment, and self-management. The purpose of this integrative review was to provide a synthesis of the research on T2D in the HI population. In a systematic literature search, 14 studies met the inclusion criteria. Three themes were identified: risk factors for less self-management and/or worse metabolic control; protective factors for better self-management and/or metabolic control; and mixed results. HIs had higher HbA1c, yet better self-management, different genetic profiles, and lower levels of vitamin D and hemoglobin concentration compared to other ethnic groups. HIs also reported better dietary quality, less healthcare utilization, and higher perceived emotional/psychological stress compared to other ethnic groups. This study has implications for practice for integrating the unique cultural factors when assessing and intervening with HIs.
KeywordsT2D risks Haitian immigrants Integrative review Diabetes self-management
This work was supported by National Institute of Nursing Research of the National Institutes of Health under Award Number T32NR008346.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
Authors declare no potential conflicts of interest with respect to the research, authorship, or publication of this article.
- 1.World Health Organization. Diabetes. 2016. http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs312/en/. Accessed 18 June 2018.
- 2.International Diabetes Federation. Facts and figures. 2016. https://www.idf.org/worlddiabetesday/toolkit/gp/facts-figures. Accessed 18 June 2018.
- 3.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National diabetes statistics report. 2017. https://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/pdfs/data/statistics/national-diabetes-statistics-report.pdf. Accessed 18 June 2018.
- 5.Magny-Normilus C. Self-management of type 2 diabetes mellitus in the context of Haitian-American culture: a concept analysis (course work). Lowell: University of Massachusetts Lowell; 2016.Google Scholar
- 7.Ross C. Suddenly anything is possible: background on Haiti & Haitian health culture. 2010. http://www.in.gov/isdh/files/cultural_primer_on_Haiti.pdf. Accessed 18 June 2018.
- 8.Kirk JK, Hildebrandt C, Davis S, Crandall SJ, Siciliano AB, Marion G. Perceptions of cultural competent diabetes management in a primary care practice. J Cult Divers. 2014;21:22–8.Google Scholar
- 9.Collins-McNeil J, Edwards CL, Batch BC, Benbow D, McDougal CS, Sharpe D. A culturally targeted self-management program for African Americans with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Can J Nurs Res. 2012;44:126–41.Google Scholar
- 13.National Institute of Health. Fact sheet-self-management. 2010. http://report.nih.gov/nihfactsheets/ViewFactSheet.aspx?csid=70. Accessed 18 June 2018.
- 20.Exebio JC, Zarini GG, Vaccaro JA, Exebio C, Huffman FG. Use of hemoglobin A1C to detect Haitian-Americans undiagnosed with type 2 diabetes. J Braz Soc Endocrinol Metab. 2012;56:449–55.Google Scholar
- 23.The National Institutes of Health. Study quality assessment tools. 2014. https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health-topics/study-quality-assessment-tools. Accessed 7 July 2018.
- 26.Huffman FG, Vaccaro JA, Zarini GG, Dixon Z. Dietary intake of flavonoids and HDL- and LDL-cholesterol in two black ethnicities with and without type 2 diabetes. Int J Cardiovasc Res. 2010;7:1–7.Google Scholar
- 28.Huffman FG, Vaccaro JA, Ajagshir S, Zarini GG, Exebio J, Dixon Z. Perceived stress and self-rated health of Haitian and African Americans with and without type 2 diabetes. J Res Med Sci. 2013;18:198–204.Google Scholar
- 30.Huffman FG, Exebio JC, Vaccaro JA, Zarini GG, Dixon Z. Effect of medical advice for diet on diabetes self-management and glycemic control for Haitian and African Americans with type 2 diabetes. Food Nutr Sci. 2013;4:1094–101.Google Scholar
- 33.Vaccaro JA, Exebio JC, Zarini GG, Huffman FG. The role of family/friend social support in diabetes self-management for minorities with type 2 diabetes. J Nutr Health. 2014;2:1–9.Google Scholar
- 43.Rosen A, Sharpe I, Rosen F, Doddard M, Abad M. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes in the Miami-Haitian community. Ethn Dis. 2007;17:S53–4.Google Scholar