Smoking Among Chinese Livery Drivers

  • Jennifer C. Leng
  • Lei Lei
  • Shu Fang Lei
  • Zhiying Zhu
  • Nancy Mo
  • Brian Sou
  • Imran Mujawar
  • Francesca Gany
Original Paper
  • 32 Downloads

Abstract

We aimed to assess a key risk factor for lung cancer, smoking, in a vulnerable group, Chinese livery drivers in New York City (NYC). This is a nested cohort study conducted in the summer/fall of 2014 within a larger NIMHD-funded R24 program, the Taxi Network. The Taxi Network Needs Assessment (TNNA) survey was administered to a broad demographic of drivers. This study reports on the TNNA survey smoking-related results among NYC Chinese livery drivers. 97 drivers participated. Mean age was 44.7 years, 2.1% were English proficient, and 23.4% were living below the poverty line. Most were insured (82.5%), had a PCP (82.5%), and had had a routine check-up within the past year (79%). 73% were current or former smokers. Culturally and linguistically tailored smoking cessation interventions, strategies to mitigate exposure to air pollution, and programs to facilitate lung cancer screening should be developed and implemented for high-risk Chinese livery drivers.

Keywords

Lung cancer Smoking Air pollution Chinese Livery drivers 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This publication was supported by the National Institutes of Health under Award Numbers R24MD008058, U01MD010648, and P30CA008748. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health. J. Leng conceived and supervised the study, and led the writing; L. Lei, S.F. Lei, Z. Zhu, N. Mo, and B. Sou conducted the data collection; I. Mujawar conducted the statistical analysis, and F. Gany supervised the study. The article contents have not been previously presented elsewhere. The authors have no conflicts of interest or financial disclosures to report.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

None of the authors have any conflicts of interests or financial disclosures to report.

References

  1. 1.
    Lobo AP, Salvo JJ. Population Division of the New York City Department of City Planning. The Newest New Yorkers—Characteristics of the City’s Foreign-born Population. 2013. https://www1.nyc.gov/assets/planning/download/pdf/data-maps/nyc-population/nny2013/nny_2013.pdf. Accessed 1 Sept 2017.
  2. 2.
    Geiss O, Barrero-Moreno J, Tirendi S, Kotzias D. Exposure to particulate matter in vehicle cabins of private cars. Aerosol Air Qual Res. 2010;10(6):581.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Praml G, Schierl R. Dust exposure in Munich public transportation: a comprehensive 4-year survey in buses and trams. Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2000;73(3):209–14.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Apantaku-Onayemi F, Baldyga W, Amuwo S, Adefuye A, Mason T, Mitchell R, Blumenthal DS. Driving to better health: cancer and cardiovascular risk assessment among taxi cab operators in Chicago. J Health Care Poor Underserved. 2012;23(2):768–80.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Gany F, Gill P, Leng J, Silberstein J, Baser R. Supporting South Asian taxi drivers to exercise through pedometers (SSTEP) to decrease cardiovascular disease risk. J Urban Health. 2014;91(3):463–76.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Gany FM, Gill PP, Ahmed A, Acharya S, Leng J. “Every disease… man can get can start in this cab”: focus groups to identify south Asian taxi drivers’ knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about cardiovascular disease and its risks. J Immigr Minor Health. 2013;15(5):986–92.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Schaller Consulting. The changing face of taxi and limousine drivers, U.S., large states and metro areas and New York City. 2004. http://www.schallerconsult.com/taxi/taxidriver.pdf. Accessed 1 Sept 2017.
  8. 8.
    Sacks JD, Stanek LW, Luben TJ, Johns DO, Buckley BJ, Brown JS, Ross M. Particulate matter-induced health effects: who is susceptible? Environ Health Perspect. 2011;119(4):446–54.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Schwartz J, Laden F, Zanobetti A. The concentration-response relation between PM(2.5) and daily deaths. Environ Health Perspect. 2002;110(10):1025–9.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Tsang H, Kwok R, Miguel AH. Pedestrian exposure to ultrafine particles in Hong Kong under heavy traffic conditions. Aerosal Air Qual Res. 2008;8(1):19–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Pope CA, Burnett RT, Thun MJ, Calle EE, Krewski D, Ito K, GD T. Lung cancer cardiopulmonary mortality and long-term exposure to fine particulate air pollution. J Am Med Assoc. 2002;287:1132–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Pope CA, Thun MJ, Namboodiri MM, Dockery DW, Evans JS, Speizer FE, Heath CW Jr. Particulate air pollution as a predictor of mortality in a prospective study of U.S. adults. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1995;151(3 Pt 1):669–74.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Gallus S, Negri E, Boffetta P, McLaughlin JK, Bosetti C, La Vecchia C. European studies on long-term exposure to ambient particulate matter and lung cancer. Eu J Cancer Prev. 2008;17(3):191–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Lepeule J, Laden F, Dockery D, Schwartz J. Chronic exposure to fine particles and mortality: an extended follow-up of the Harvard six cities study from 1974 to 2009. Environ Health Perspect. 2012;120(7):965–70.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Turner MC, Krewski D, Pope CA 3rd, Chen Y, Gapstur SM, Thun MJ. Long-term ambient fine particulate matter air pollution and lung cancer in a large cohort of never-smokers. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2011;184(12):1374–81.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Hansen J, Raaschou-Nielsen O, Olsen JH. Increased risk of lung cancer among different types of professional drivers in Denmark. Occup Environ Med. 1998;55(2):115–8.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Jakobsson R, Gustavsson P, Lundberg I. Increased risk of lung cancer among male professional drivers in urban but not rural areas of Sweden. Occup Environ Med. 1997;54(3):189–93.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Chae DH, Gavin AR, Takeuchi DT. Smoking prevalence among asian americans: findings from the National Latino and Asian American Study (NLAAS). Public Health Rep. 2006;121(6):755–63.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer. GLOBOCAN 2012: estimated cancer incidence, mortality, and prevalence worldwide in 2012. http://globocan.iarc.fr/Pages/fact_sheets_cancer.aspx?cancer=lung. Accessed 1 Sept 2017.
  20. 20.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. CDC WONDER On-line database, compiled from compressed mortality file 1999–2012. Series 20 No. 2R. 2014. http://wonder.cdc.gov/cmf-icd10.html. Accessed 1 Sept 2017.
  21. 21.
    American Cancer Society. Cancer facts and figures. 2016. http://www.cancer.org/acs/groups/content/@research/documents/document/acspc-047079.pdf. Accessed 1 Sept 2017.
  22. 22.
    US Preventive Services Task Force. Recommendation summary. 2014. http://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/Page/Topic/recommendation-summary/lung-cancer-screening. Accessed 1 Sept 2017.
  23. 23.
    Crino L, Weder W, Van Meerbeeck J, Felip E. Early stage and locally advanced (non-metastatic) non-small-cell lung cancer: ESMO Clinical Practice Guidelines for diagnosis, treatment and follow-up. Ann Oncol. 2010;21(suppl_5):v103–v115.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Henschke CI, Yankelevitz DF, Libby DM, Pasmantier MW, Smith JP, Miettinen OS. Survival of patients with stage I lung cancer detected on CT screening. N Engl J Med. 2006;355(17):1763–71.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Johnson DH, Schiller JH, Bunn PA Jr. Recent clinical advances in lung cancer management. J Clin Oncol. 2014;32(10):973–82.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Goel MS, Wee CC, McCarthy EP, Davis RB, Ngo-Metzger Q, Phillips RS. Racial and ethnic disparities in cancer screening: the importance of foreign birth as a barrier to care. J Gen Intern Med. 2003;18(12):1028–35.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Hwang H. Colorectal cancer screening among Asian Americans. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2013;14(7):4025–32.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Jacobs EA, Karavolos K, Rathouz PJ, Ferris TG, Powell LH. Limited English proficiency and breast and cervical cancer screening in a multiethnic population. Am J Public Health. 2005;95(8):1410–6.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Kandula NR, Wen M, Jacobs EA, Lauderdale DS. Low rates of colorectal, cervical, and breast cancer screening in Asian Americans compared with non-Hispanic whites: cultural influences or access to care? Cancer 2006;107(1):184–92.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Schleicher E. Immigrant women and cervical cancer prevention in the United States. Baltimore: Women's and Children's Health Policy Center, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. 2007. https://www.jhsph.edu/research/centers-and-institutes/womens-and-childrens-health-policy-center/publications/ImmigrantWomenCerCancerPrevUS.pdf. Accessed 1 Sept 2017.
  31. 31.
    Ward E, Jemal A, Cokkinides V, Singh GK, Cardinez C, Ghafoor A, Thun M. Cancer disparities by race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status. CA: Cancer J Clin. 2004;54(2):78–93.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Karliner LS, Napoles-Springer AM, Schillinger D, Bibbins-Domingo K, Perez-Stable EJ. Identification of limited English proficient patients in clinical care. J Gen Intern Med. 2008;23(10):1555–60.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Gany F, Diamond L, Meslin R, Gonzalez J. Ensuring access to research for non-dominant language speakers. In: Castañeda X, Rodriguez-Lainz A, Schenker MB, editors. Migration and health research methodologies: a handbook for the study of migrant populations. Oakland: University of California Press; 2012.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Cohen S, Williamson G. Perceived stress in a probability sample of the United States. In: Spacapan S, Oskamp S, editors. The social psychology of health: Claremont Symposium on applied social psychology. Newbury Park: SAGE; 1988.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Wang Z, Chen J, Boyd JE, Zhang H, Jia X, Qiu J, Xiao Z. Psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the Perceived Stress Scale in policewomen. PLoS ONE. 2011;6(12):e28610.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Kroencke K, Spitzer R, Williams J. The PHQ-9: validity of a brief depression severity measure. J Gen Intern Med. 2001;16(9):606–13 (Electronic version).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Spitzer RL, Kroenke K, Williams JB, Group PHQPCS. Validation and utility of a self-report version of PRIME-MD: the PHQ primary care study. J Am Med Assoc. 1999;282(18):1737–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Yeung A, Fung F, Yu S-C, Vorono S, Ly M, Wu S, Fava M. Validation of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 for depression screening among Chinese Americans. Compr Psychiatry. 2008;49(2):211–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    NYC Taxi & Limousine Commission. NYC Taxi & Limousine Commission - Current Licensees. 2014. http://www.nyc.gov/html/tlc/html/industry/current_licensees.shtml. Accessed 1 Sept 2017.
  40. 40.
    Chinese Advertising Agencies. About world journal. http://www.chineseadvertisingagencies.com/mediaguide/World-Journal.html. Accessed 1 Sept 2017.
  41. 41.
    World Journal. World journal - about us. http://www.worldjournal.com/page-about_us-e/. Accessed 1 Sept 2017.
  42. 42.
    U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The health consequences of smoking-50 years of progress. A report of the surgeon general executive summary. 2014. https://www.surgeongeneral.gov/library/reports/50-years-of-progress/index.html. Accessed 1 Sept 2017.
  43. 43.
    Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Tobacco-related mortality. 2016. https://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/data_statistics/fact_sheets/health_effects/tobacco_related_mortality/. Accessed 1 Sept 2017.
  44. 44.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. What are the risk factors for lung cancer? 2016. https://www.cdc.gov/cancer/lung/basic_info/risk_factors.htm. Accessed 1 Sept 2017.
  45. 45.
    Wu D, Ma GX, Zhou K, Zhou D, Liu A, Poon AN. The effect of a culturally tailored smoking cessation for Chinese American smokers. Nicotine Tob Res. 2009;11(12):1448–57.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Spigner C, Yip M-P, Huang B, Tu SP. Chinese and Vietnamese adult male smokers’ perspectives regarding facilitators of tobacco cessation behavior. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2007;8(3):429.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    New York City Taxi and Limousine Commission. Taxicab factbook 2014. http://www.nyc.gov/html/tlc/downloads/pdf/2014_taxicab_fact_book.pdf. Accessed May 2017.
  48. 48.
    Pui DY, Qi C, Stanley N, Oberdörster G, Maynard A. Recirculating air filtration significantly reduces exposure to airborne nanoparticles. Environ Health Perspect. 2008;116(7):863.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer. IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans. Carbon black, titanium dioxide, and talc 2010, vol 93. http://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Monographs/vol93/index.php. Accessed 1 Sept 2017.
  50. 50.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Cancer screening in the United States. 2014. https://www.cdc.gov/cancer/dcpc/research/articles/screening_us.htm. Accessed 1 Sept 2017.
  51. 51.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Study finds racial and ethnic disparities in US cancer screening rates. 2012. https://www.cdc.gov/media/releases/2012/p0126_cancer_screening.html. Accessed 1 Sept 2017.
  52. 52.
    Fernandez ME, Gonzales A, Tortolero-Luna G, Williams J, Saavedra-Embesi M, Chan W, Vernon SW. Effectiveness of Cultivando la Salud: a breast and cervical cancer screening promotion program for low-income Hispanic women. Am J Public Health. 2009;99(5):936–43.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Lam TK, McPhee SJ, Mock J, Wong C, Doan HT, Nguyen T, Lai KQ, Ha-Iaconis T, Luong TN. Encouraging Vietnamese-American women to obtain Pap tests through lay health worker outreach and media education. J Gen Intern Med. 2003;18(7):516–24.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    The Association of State and Territorial Health Officials (ASTHO). Improving cancer prevention and control: how state health agencies can support patient navigators and community health workers. 2012. http://www.astho.org/ImprovingCancerPreventionandControl/. Accessed 15 Feb 2018.
  55. 55.
    Wells KJ, Luque JS, Miladinovic B, Vargas N, Asvat Y, Roetzheim RG, Kumar A. Do community health worker interventions improve rates of screening mammography in the United States? a systematic review. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev. 2011;20(8):1580–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jennifer C. Leng
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Lei Lei
    • 1
  • Shu Fang Lei
    • 1
  • Zhiying Zhu
    • 1
  • Nancy Mo
    • 1
  • Brian Sou
    • 1
  • Imran Mujawar
    • 1
  • Francesca Gany
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Immigrant Health and Cancer Disparities ServiceMemorial Sloan Kettering Cancer CenterNew YorkUSA
  2. 2.Department of MedicineMemorial Sloan Kettering Cancer CenterNew YorkUSA
  3. 3.Department of Healthcare Policy and ResearchWeill Cornell Medical CollegeNew YorkUSA
  4. 4.Department of MedicineWeill Cornell Medical CollegeNew YorkUSA

Personalised recommendations