Advertisement

Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health

, Volume 18, Issue 4, pp 836–849 | Cite as

Acculturation and Self-Rated Mental Health Among Latino and Asian Immigrants in the United States: A Latent Class Analysis

  • Elif Bulut
  • Matthew D. Gayman
Original Paper

Abstract

This study assesses variations in acculturation experiences by identifying distinct acculturation classes, and investigates the role of these acculturation classes for self-rated mental health among Latino and Asian immigrants in the United States. Using 2002–2003 the National Latino and Asian American Study, Latent Class Analysis is used to capture variations in immigrant classes (recent arrivals, separated, bicultural and assimilated), and OLS regressions are used to assess the link between acculturation classes and self-rated mental health. For both Latinos and Asians, bicultural immigrants reported the best mental health, and separated immigrants and recent arrivals reported the worst mental health. The findings also reveal group differences in acculturation classes, whereby Latino immigrants were more likely to be in the separated class and recent arrivals class relative to Asian immigrants. While there was not a significant group difference in self-rated mental health at the bivariate level, controlling for acculturation classes revealed that Latinos report better self-rated mental health than Asians. Thus, Latino immigrants would actually have better self-rated mental health than their Asian counterparts if they were not more likely to be represented in less acculturated classes (separated class and recent arrivals) and/or as likely to be in the bicultural class as their Asian counterparts. Together the findings underscore the nuanced and complex nature of the acculturation process, highlighting the importance of race differences in this process, and demonstrate the role of acculturation classes for immigrant group differences in self-rated mental health.

Keywords

Acculturation Self-rated mental health Latino immigrants Asian immigrants 

Notes

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Ethical Standard

The protocol for this research project has been approved by the Institutional Review Board (IRB) of the Georgia State University.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

References

  1. 1.
    U. S. Census Bureau. The foreign-born population in the United States: 2010. Retrieved from http://www.census.gov/prod/2012pubs/acs-19.pdf.
  2. 2.
    Lara M, Gamboa C, Kahramanian MI, Morales LS, Hayes Bautista DE. Acculturation and Latino health in the United States: a review of the literature and its sociopolitical context. Annu Rev Public Health. 2005;26:367–97.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Escobar JI, Nervi CH, Gara MA. Immigration and mental health: Mexican Americans in the United States. Harv Rev Psychiatry. 2000;8(2):64–72.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Alegría M, Canino G, Shrout PE, Woo M, Duan N, Vila D, Torres M, Chen C-N, Meng X-L. Prevalence of mental illness in immigrant and non-immigrant U.S. Latino groups. Am J Psychiatry. 2008;165(3):359–69.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ortega AN, Feldman JM, Canino G, Steinman K, Alegría M. Co-Occurrence of Mental and Physical Illness in US Latinos. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2006;41(12):927–34.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Mulvaney-Day NE, Alegría M, Sribney W. Social cohesion, social support, and health among latinos in the United States. Soc Sci Med. 2007;64(2):477–95.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kaplan MS, Marks G. Adverse effects of acculturation: psychological distress among Mexican American young adults. Soc Sci Med. 1990;31(12):1313–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Vega WA, Kolody B, Aguilar-Gaxiola S, Alderate E, Catalano R, Carveo-Anduaga J. Lifetime prevalence of DSM-III-R psychiatric disorders among urban and rural Mexican Americans in California. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1998;55:771–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Burnam MA, Hough RL, Karno M, Escobar JI, Telles CA. Acculturation and lifetime prevalence of psychiatric disorders among Mexican Americans in Los Angeles. J Health Soc Behav. 1987;28(1):89.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Cook B, Alegría M, Lin JY, Guo J. Pathways and correlates connecting Latinos’ mental health with exposure to the United States. Am J Public Health. 2009;99(12):2247–54.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Finch BK, Frank R, Vega WA. Acculturation and acculturation stress: a social-epidemiological approach to Mexican migrant farmworkers’ health. Int Migr Rev. 2004;38(1):236–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Perez D, Sribney WM, Rodriguez MA. Perceived discrimination and self-reported quality of care among latinos in the United States. J Gen Intern Med. 2009;24(Suppl 3):548–54.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Leong F, Park YS, Kalibatseva Z. Disentangling immigrant status in mental health: psychological protective and risk factors among Latino and Asian American immigrants. Am J Orthopsychiatry. 2013;83(2–3):361–71.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Franzini L, Fernandez-Esquer ME. Socioeconomic, cultural, and personal influences on health outcomes in low income Mexican-origin individuals in Texas. Soc Sci Med. 2004;59(8):1629–46.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Hwang W-C, Ting JY. Disaggregating the effects of acculturation and acculturative stress on the mental health of Asian Americans. Cult Divers Ethn Minor Psychol. 2008;14(2):147–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Abe JS, Zane NWS. Psychological maladjustment among Asian and White American college students: controlling for confounds. J Couns Psychol. 1990;37(4):437–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kuo WH. Prevalence of Depression among Asian-Americans. J Nerv Ment Dis. 1984;172(8):449–57.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Yeh CJ. Age, acculturation, cultural adjustment, and mental health symptoms of Chinese, Korean, and Japanese immigrant youths. Cult Divers Ethn Minor Psychol. 2003;9(1):34–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Hasin DS, Goodwin RD, Stinson FS, Grant BF. Epidemiology of major depressive disorder: results from the national epidemiologic survey on alcoholism and related conditions. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2005;62(10):1097–106.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kuo BCH, Chong V, Joseph J. Depression and its psychosocial correlates among older Asian immigrants in North America: a critical review of two decades’ research. J Aging Health. 2008;20(6):615–52.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Koneru VK, de Mamani AGW, Flynn PM, Betancourt H. Acculturation and mental health: current findings and recommendations for future research. Appl Prev Psychol. 2007;12(2):76–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Gupta A, Leong F, Valentine JC, Canada DD. A meta-analytic study: the relationship between acculturation and depression among Asian Americans. Am J Orthopsychiatry. 2013;83(2–3):372–85.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Alegria M. The challenge of acculturation measures: what are we missing? a commentary on Thomson & Hoffman-Goetz. Soc Sci Med. 2009;69(7):996–8.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Organista PB, Organista KC, Kurasaki K. The relationship between acculturation and ethnic minority health. In: Chun KM, Balls P, Mar G, editors. Acculturation: advances in theory, measurement, and applied research. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association; 2003. p. 139–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Stevens GWJM, Vollebergh WAM. Mental health in migrant children. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2008;49(3):276–94.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Rogler LH, Cortes DE, Malgady RG. Acculturation and mental health status among Hispanics: convergence and new directions for research. Am Psychol. 1991;46(6):585.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Warner WL, Srole L. The social systems of American ethnic groups. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press; 1945.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Gordon M. Assimilation in American life : the role of race, religion and national origins. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 1964.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Portes A, Rumbaut RG. Legacies: the story of the immigrant second generation. California: University of California Press; 2001.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Zhou M. Segmented assimilation: issues, controversies, and recent research on the new second generation. Int Migr Rev. 1997;31(4):975–1008.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Berry JW. Acculturation as varieties of adaptation. In: Padilla A, editor. Acculturation: theory, models and some new findings. Boulder, CO: Westview; 1980. p. 9–25.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Schwartz SJ, Zamboanga BL. Testing Berry’s model of acculturation: a confirmatory latent class approach. Cult Divers Ethn Minor Psychol. 2008;14(4):275–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Gorman BK, Read JG, Krueger PM. Gender, acculturation, and health among Mexican Americans. J Health Soc Behav. 2010;51(4):440–57.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Lopez-Gonzalez L, Aravena VC, Hummer RA. Immigrant acculturation, gender and health behavior: a research note. Soc Forces. 2005;84(1):581–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Phinney JS. Ethnic identity and self-esteem: a review and integration. Hisp J Behav Sci. 1991;13(2):193–208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Berry JW. Immigration, acculturation, and adaptation. Appl Psychol. 1997;46(1):5–34.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Berry JW. Acculturation: living successfully in two cultures. Int J Intercult Relat. Special issue: conflict, negotiation, and mediation across cultures: highlights from the fourth Biennial conference of the international academy for intercultural research. 2005; 29(6):697–712.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Mossakowski KN. Coping with perceived discrimination: does ethnic identity protect mental health? J Health Soc Behav. 2003;44(3):318.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Kuo WH, Tsai YM. Social networking, hardiness and immigrant’s mental health. J Health Soc Behav. 1986;27(2):133–49.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Phinney JS, Horenczyk G, Liebkind K, Vedder P. Ethnic identity, immigration, and well-being: an interactional perspective. J Soc Issues. 2001;57(3):493–510.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Guarnaccia PJ, Pincay IM, Alegria M, Shrout PE, Lewis-Fernandez R, Canino GJ. Assessing diversity among Latinos results from the NLAAS. Hisp J Behav Sci. 2007;29(4):510–34.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Finch BK, Frank R, Vega WA. Acculturation and acculturation stress: a social-epidemiological approach to Mexican migrant farmworkers’ health. Int Migr Rev. 2004;38(1):236–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Portes A, Rumbaut RG. Immigrant America: a portrait. California: University of California Press; 2006.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Wong P, Lai CF, Nagasawa R, Lin T. Asian Americans as a model minority: self-perceptions and perceptions by other racial groups. Sociolo Perspect. 1998;41(1):95–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Portes A, Zhou M. The new second generation: segmented assimilation and its variants. Ann Am Acad Polit Soc Sci. 1993;530(1):74–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Tran AGTT, Lee RM, Burgess DJ. Perceived discrimination and substance use in Hispanic/Latino, African-Born Black, and Southeast Asian immigrants. Cult Divers Ethn Minor Psychol. 2010;16(2):226–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Padilla AM, Perez W. Acculturation, social identity, and social cognition: a new perspective. Hisp J Behav Sci. 2003;25(1):35–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Thoits PA. Stress and health major findings and policy implications. J Health Soc Behav. 2010;51(1 suppl):S41–53.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Roberts AL, Gilman SE, Breslau J, Breslau N, Koenen KC. Race/ethnic differences in exposure to traumatic events, development of post-traumatic stress disorder, and treatment-seeking for post-traumatic stress disorder in the United States. Psychol Med. 2011;41(01):71–83.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Gore S, Aseltine RH Jr. Race and ethnic differences in depressed mood following the transition from high school. J Health Soc Behav. 2003;44(3):370–89.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Lv H. Mental health status of Asian and Latino/Caribbean immigrants. Florida: University of Miami; 2010.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Williams DR, Mohammed SA, Leavell J, Collins C. Race, socioeconomic status, and health: complexities, ongoing challenges, and research opportunities. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2010;1186:69–101.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Gavin AR, Walton E, Chae DH, Alegria M, Jackson JS, Takeuchi D. The associations between socio-economic status and major depressive disorder among Blacks, Latinos, Asians and non-Hispanic Whites: findings from the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Studies. Psychol Med. 2010;40(1):51.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Leong F, Park YS, Kalibatseva Z. Disentangling immigrant status in mental health: psychological protective and risk factors among Latino and Asian American immigrants. Am J Orthopsychiatry. 2013;83(2–3):361–71.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Woodward AT, Taylor RJ, Bullard KM, Aranda MP, Lincoln KD, Chatters LM. Prevalence of lifetime DSM-IV affective disorders among older African Americans, Black Caribbeans, Latinos, Asians and Non-Hispanic White People. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2012;27(8):816–27.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    U. S. Census Bureau. Selected population profile in the United States: 2008. American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates Table S0201. 2008.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    John DA, de Castro AB, Martin DP, Duran B, Takeuchi DT. Does an immigrant health paradox exist among asian americans? associations of nativity and occupational class with self-rated health and mental disorders. Soc Sci Med. 2012;75(12):2085–98.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Lorant V, Deliège D, Eaton W, Robert A, Philippot P, Ansseau M. Socioeconomic inequalities in depression: a meta-analysis. Am J Epidemiol. 2003;157(2):98–112.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Lynch JW, Kaplan GA. Socioeconomic position. In: Berkman LF, Kawachi I, editors. Social epidemiology. New York: Oxford University Press; 2000.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Wilkinson RG, Pickett KE. Income inequality and population health: a review and explanation of the evidence. Soc Sci Med. 2006;62(7):1768–84.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Williams DR, Gonzalez HM, Neighbors H, Nesse R, Abelson JM, Sweetman J, Jackson JS. Prevalence and distribution of major depressive disorder in African Americans, Caribbean blacks, and non-Hispanic whites: results from the National Survey of American Life. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2007;64(3):305–15.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    McCutcheon AL. Latent class analysis. London: SAGE; 1987.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Vermunt JK, Magidson J. Latent class analysis. In: Lewis-Beck MS, Bryman A, Liao TF, editors. The Sage Encyclopedia of Social Sciences Research Methods. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications; 2004. p. 549–53.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Nieri T, Lee C, Kulis S, Marsiglia FF. Acculturation among Mexican-heritage preadolescents: a latent class analysis. Soc Sci Res. 2011;40(4):1236–48.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Magidson J, Vermunt JK. Latent class modeling as a probabilistic extension of K-means clustering. Quirk’s Mark Res Rev. 2002;20:77–80.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Heeringa SG, Wagner J, Torres M, Duan N, Adams T, Berglund P. Sample designs and sampling methods for the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Studies (CPES). Int J Methods Psychiatr Res. 2004;13(4):221–40.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Aneshensel CS. Research in mental health: social etiology versus social consequences. J Health Soc Behav. 2005;46(3):221–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    De Castro AB, Gee GC, Takeuchi DT. Examining alternative measures of social disadvantage among Asian Americans: the relevance of economic opportunity, subjective social status, and financial strain for health. J Immigr Minor Health. 2010;12(5):659–71.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Franzini L, Fernandez-Esquer ME. The association of subjective social status and health in low-income Mexican-origin individuals in Texas. Soc Sci Med. 2006;63(3):788–804.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Schachter A, Kimbro RT, Gorman BK. Language proficiency and health status are bilingual immigrants healthier? J Health Soc Behav. 2012;53(1):124–45.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Zhang W, Ta VM. Social connections, immigration-related factors, and self-rated physical and mental health among Asian Americans. Soc Sci Med. 2009;68(12):2104–12.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Bjorner JB, Kristensen TS. Multi-item scales for measuring global self-rated health investigation of construct validity using structural equations models. Res Aging. 2009;21(3):417–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Fleishman JAJ, Zuvekas SHS. Global self-rated mental health: associations with other mental health measures and with role functioning. Med Care. 2007;45:602.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Mawani FN, Gilmour H. Validation of self-rated mental health. Health Rep. 2010;21:61–75.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Katz SJ, Kessler RC, Frank RG, Leaf P, Lin E, Edlund M. The use of outpatient mental health services in the United States and Ontario: the impact of mental morbidity and perceived need for care. Am J Public Health. 1997;87:1136–43.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Kalibatseva Z, Leong FT. Depression among Asian Americans: review and recommendations. Depress Res Treat. 2011;2011:1–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Ji P, Duan C. The relationship among acculturation, acculturation stress, and depression for a Korean and a Korean-American sample. Asian J Couns. 2006;13(2):235–70.Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Yip T, Gee GC, Takeuchi DT. Racial discrimination and psychological distress: the impact of ethnic identity and age among immigrant and United States-born Asian adults. Dev Psychol. 2008;44(3):787.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Wallen G, Feldman R, Anliker J. Measuring acculturation among Central American women with use of a Brief Language Scale. J Immigr Health. 2002;42:95–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Nylund KL, Asparouhov T, Muthén BO. Deciding on the number of classes in latent class analysis and growth mixture modeling: a Monte Carlo simulation study. Struct Equ Model. 2007;14(4):535–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Akaike H. Factor analysis and AIC. Psychometrika. 1987;52(3):317–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Schwarz G. Estimating the dimension of a model. Ann Stat. 1978;6(2):461–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Sclove L. Application of model-selection criteria to some problems in multivariate analysis. Psychometrika. 1987;52:333–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Tein JY, Coxe S, Cham H. Statistical power to detect the correct number of classes in latent profile analysis. Struct Equ Model Multidiscip J. 2013;20(4):640–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Muthén BO. Analysis of preventive intervention data using mixture modeling in Mplus. In: Presentation at the annual conference of the Society for Prevention Research; Washington, DC; 2007. May.Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Berry JW, Sabatier C. Variations in the assessment of acculturation attitudes: their relationships with psychological wellbeing. Int J Intercult Relat. 2011;35(5):658–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Berry JW, Kim U. Acculturation and mental health. In: Dasen P, Berry JW, Sartorius N, editors. Health and cross-cultural psychology. London: SAGE; 1988. p. 207–36.Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Finch BK, Vega WA. Acculturation stress, social support, and self-rated health among Latinos in California. J Immigr Health. 2003;5(3):109–17.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Sullivan MM, Rehm R. Mental health of undocumented Mexican immigrants: a review of the literature. Adv Nurs Sci. 2005;28(3):240–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Nicassio PM. Psychosocial correlates of alienation: study of a sample of Indochinese refugees. J Cross Cult Psychol. 1983;14:337–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Miller AM, Sorokin O, Wang E, Choi M, Feetham S, Wilbur J. Acculturation, social alienation, and depressed mood in midlife women from the former Soviet Union. Res Nurs Health. 2006;29:134–46.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Portes A, Bach RL. Latin journey: cuban and Mexican immigrants in the United States. California: Univ of California Press; 1985.Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Zhou M. Chinatown: the socioeconomic potential of an Urban enclave. Philadelphia: Temple University Press; 1995.Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Wadsworth T, Kubrin CE. Hispanic suicide in U.S. metropolitan areas: examining the effects of immigration, assimilation, affluence, and disadvantage. Am J Sociol. 2007;112(6):1848–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Wen M, Lauderdale DS, Kandula NR. Ethnic neighborhoods in multi-ethnic America, 1990–2000: resurgent ethnicity in the ethnoburbs? Soc Forces. 2009;88(1):425–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Aguilar-San Juan K. Little saigons: staying vietnamese in America. Minneapolis: U of Minnesota Press; 2009.Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Miller AM, Wang E, Szalacha LA, Sorokin O. Longitudinal changes in acculturation for immigrant women from the former Soviet Union. J Cross Cult Psychol. 2009;40(3):400–15.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Smokowski P, Buchanan RL, Bacallao ML. Acculturation and adjustment in Latino adolescents: how cultural risk factors and assets influence multiple domains of adolescent mental health. J Prim Prev. 2009;30(3–4):371–93.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Cuellar I, Arnold B, Maldonado R. Acculturation rating scale for Mexican Americans-II: a revision of the original ARSMA scale. Hisp J Behav Sci. 1995;17(3):275–304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Knight GP, Gonzales NA, Saenz DS. The Mexican American cultural values scales for adolescents and adults. J Early Adolesc. 2010;30(3):444–81.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Idler EL, Benyamini Y. Self-rated health and mortality: a review of twenty-seven community studies. J Health Soc Behav. 1997;38(1):21.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Angel R, Guarnaccia PJ. Mind, body, and culture: somatization among Hispanics. Soc Sci Med. 1989;28(12):1229–38.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Cislo AM, Spence NJ, Gayman MD. The mental health and psychosocial adjustment of Cuban immigrants in south Florida. Soc Sci Med. 2010;71(6):1173–81.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Murphy JM. Approaches to cross-cultural psychiatry. Ithaca: Cornell University Press; 1965.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Political ScienceIpek UniversityAnkaraTurkey
  2. 2.Department of SociologyGeorgia State UniversityAtlantaUSA

Personalised recommendations