Acculturation, Gender, and Mental Health of Southeast Asian Immigrant Youth in Canada
- 1.1k Downloads
The relationships between mental health, protective factors and acculturation among Southeast Asian youth were examined in this study using a gender-based analysis. Population-based data from the 2008 British Columbia Adolescent Health Survey were used to examine differences in extreme stress and despair by acculturation. Associations between emotional distress and hypothesized protective factors were examined using logistic regression. Stratified analyses were performed to assess gender-related differences. Recent immigrant youth reported higher odds of emotional distress. Family connectedness and school connectedness were linked to lower odds of extreme stress and despair among girls. Family connectedness was associated with lower odds of extreme stress and despair among boys. Higher cultural connectedness was associated with lower odds of despair among boys but with higher odds of extreme stress among girls. Findings are discussed in relation to acculturation and gender-based patterns in protective factors for mental health among Southeast Asian immigrant youth.
KeywordsMental health Acculturation Gender Protective factors Southeast Asian youth
The authors would like to thank the reviewers for their thoughtful feedback.
Conflict of interest
- 1.Mental Health Commission of Canada. Changing directions, changing lives: the mental health strategy for Canada. Alberta: Author; 2012.Google Scholar
- 2.Salehi R: Intersection of health, immigration, and youth: a systematic literature review. J Immigrc Minor Health Cent Min Public Health. 2010; 12:788–797.Google Scholar
- 3.First Call: BC Child and Youth Advocacy Coalition: 2011 British Columbia Child Poverty Report Card. 2011.Google Scholar
- 7.Smith A, Poon C, Steward D, Hoogeveen C, Saewyc E. McCreary Centre Society: making the right connections: promoting positive mental health among BC youth. Vancouver, B.C: McCreary Centre Society; 2011.Google Scholar
- 13.Berry JW. Acculturation and adaptation of immigrant youth. Canadian Divers. 2008;6:50–3.Google Scholar
- 14.Khanlou N. Migrant mental health. Canadian Issues / Thèmes Canadiens. Summer 2010; 9–16. http://canada.metropolis.net/pdfs/immigrant_mental_health_10aug10.pdf.
- 15.Ng E, Omariba DWR. Is there a Healthy Immigrant Effect in Mental Health? Evidences from Population-Based Health Surveys in Canada. Canadian Issues / Thèmes Canadiens. Summer 2010; 23–28. http://canada.metropolis.net/pdfs/immigrant_mental_health_10aug10.pdf.
- 16.Hamilton, H. A., Noh, S., Adlaf, E. M. (2009). Adolescent risk behaviours and psychological distress across immigrant generations. Canadian journal of public health = Revue canadienne de santé publique, 100(3), 221–5. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19507727.
- 23.Statistics Canada. Proportion of foreign-born population, by province and territory. 2010; 2012.Google Scholar
- 24.Citizenship and Immigration Canada. Facts and Figures 2009: immigration overview. 2009; 2012.Google Scholar
- 26.Saewyc E, Green R. Survey methodology for the 2008 BC adolescent health survey IV. Vancouver, B.C: McCreary Centre Society; 2009.Google Scholar
- 28.Saewyc EM, Homma Y. Psychometric properties of scales in the BC Adolescent Health Surveys of McCreary Centre Society. Vancouver, B.C: McCreary Centre Society; 2010.Google Scholar
- 30.Lazarus RS, Folkman S. Stress, appraisal, and coping. New York: Springer; 1984.Google Scholar
- 31.Berry JW: Acculturative stress: In: Handbook of multicultural perspectives on stress and coping. Boston, MA: Springer; 2006:287–298.Google Scholar
- 33.Afifi TO, Enns MW, Cox BJ, Martens PJ. Investigating health correlates of adolescent depression in Canada. Canadian Journal of Public Health = Revue canadienne de santé publique 2005; 96:427–431.Google Scholar
- 35.Robert A, Gilkinson T. The mental health and well-being of recent immigrants. Health Policy Res Bull. 2010;17:24–5.Google Scholar
- 41.Tajfel H. Social identity and intergroup relations. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 1982.Google Scholar
- 43.George MA, Bassani C, Armstrong RW. Influence of perceived racial discrimination on health and behaviour of immigrant children in British Columbia. Int J Popul Res. 2012; 1–9.Google Scholar