Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health

, Volume 17, Issue 1, pp 37–46 | Cite as

Diagnoses of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infection Among Foreign-Born Persons Living in the District of Columbia

  • Leigh A. Willis
  • Jenevieve Opoku
  • Ashley Murray
  • Tiffany West
  • Anna Satcher Johnson
  • Gregory Pappas
  • Madeline Y. Sutton
Original Paper


This study characterizes available surveillance data for HIV infected foreign-born residents in the District of Columbia (DC) to inform local HIV prevention and care efforts. HIV surveillance data were reviewed for adults and adolescents (ages ≥13 years) living with HIV in 2008. Variables analyzed included demographics, region of origin (for persons born outside of the U.S.), insurance coverage, linkage to and continuous HIV care. Of the 16,513 DC residents living with HIV diagnoses, 1,391 (8.4 %) were foreign-born. Of foreign-born infected, 71.9 % were male; 33.3 % were from Africa and 20.8 % from Central America; 80.6 % were exposed through sex; 36.3 % had health coverage at diagnosis. While 100 % of foreign-born persons had documented linkage to HIV care, only 18.0 % had documentation of continued HIV care. These data suggest that strengthening continuous HIV care support after successful care linkage is warranted for foreign-born persons living with HIV in DC.


HIV District of Columbia Foreign-born Linkage to care 


  1. 1.
    Hall HI, Espinoza L, Benbow N, Hu YW, for the Urban Areas HIV Surveillance Workgroup. Epidemiology of HIV infection in large urban areas in the United States. PLoS ONE. 2010;5(9):e12756. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0012756.
  2. 2.
    Magnus M, Kuo I, Shelley K, et al. Risk factors driving the emergence of a generalized heterosexual HIV epidemic in Washington, district of Columbia networks at risk. AIDS. 2009;23(10):1277–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Centers for disease control and prevention (CDC). HIV survellance report 2010, Vol 22. 2012 Accessed Aug 6 2012.
  4. 4.
    Network GaSGaR. Washington, DC: Beta + Global City. 2008. Accessed July 17, 2012.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    U.S Bearuea of the Census. 2008. American Community Survey 1-year Estimates: Washington, DC. 2010. Accessed Jun 11, 2012.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Prosser AT, Tang T, Hall HI. HIV in persons born outside the United States, 2007–2010. JAMA. 2012. doi: 10.1001/jama.2012.9046.
  7. 7.
    Johnson AS, Hu XH, Dean HD. Epidemiologic differences between native-born and foreign-born black people diagnosed with HIV infection in 33 US states, 2001–2007. Public Health Rep. 2010;125:61–9.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kerani RP, Kent JB, Sides T, et al. HIV among African-born persons in the United States: a Hidden epidemic? J Int Assoc Provid AIDS Care. 2008;49:102–6.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Page LC, Goldbaum G, Kent JB, Buskin SE. Access to regular HIV care and disease progression among black african immigrants. J Natl Med Assoc. 2009;101:1230–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Levy V, Prentiss D, Balmas G, et al. Factors in the delayed HIV presentation of immigrants in Northern California: implications for voluntary counseling and testing programs. J Immigr Minor Health. 2007;9(1):49–54.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Harawa NT, Bingham TA, Cochran SD, Greenland S, Cunningham WE. HIV prevalence among foreign- and US-born clients of public STD clinics. Am J Public Health. 2002;92(12):1958–63.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Shedlin MG, Decena CU, Oliver-Velez D. Initial acculturation and HIV risk among new Hispanic immigrants. J Natl Med Assoc. 2005;97(7):32S–7S.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    National HIV/AIDS strategy for the United States. available at Accessed Aug 6, 2012.
  14. 14.
    CDC. distinguishing public health research and public health non research. Accessed Apr 22, 2013.
  15. 15.
    United Nations Annual Demographic Yearbook. available at: Accessed Aug 6, 2012.
  16. 16.
    The district of Columbia HIV/AIDS Epidemiology Annual Report 2011. Accessed Oct 4, 2012.
  17. 17.
    UNAIDS. AIDS info Country Fact Sheet, Ethopia. 2009; Accessed Jun 10, 2012.
  18. 18.
    UNAIDS. AIDS info Country Fact Sheet, Cameroon. 2009; Accessed Jun 10, 2012.
  19. 19.
    Mitha K, Yirsalign M, Cherner M, McCutchan A, Langford TD. Risk pereception and beliefs regarding HIV Infection among ethiopian immigrants. AIDS Educat Preven. 2009;21:484–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Beyene Y, Potential HIV. Risk behaviors among Ethiopians and Eritreans in the diaspora: a bird’s-eye view. Northeast Afr Stud. 2000;7(2):119–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    UNAIDS. AIDSinfo Country Fact Sheet, Nigeria, 2009. 2011; Accessed Apr 7, 2013.
  22. 22.
    UNAIDS. AIDS info Country Fact Sheet, El Salvador. 2009; Accessed Mar 10, 2013.
  23. 23.
    UNAIDS. AIDS info Country Fact Sheet, Guatemala. 2009; Accessed Mar 7, 2013.
  24. 24.
    UNAIDS. AIDSinfo Country Fact Sheet, Mexico. 2009; Accessed Mar 7, 2013.
  25. 25.
    Strathdee S, Magis-Rodriguez C. Mexico’s evolving HIV epidemic. J Am Med Assoc. 2008;300(5):571–3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Crawford T, Caldwell G, Bush HM, Browning S, Thornton A. Foreign born status and HIV/AIDS: a comparative analysis of HIV/AIDS characteristics among foreign and US born individuals. J Immigr Minor Health. 2012;14(1):82–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Marks G, Gardner LI, Craw J, Crepaz N. Entry and retention in medical care among HIV-diagnosed persons: a meta-analysis. AIDS. 2010;24(17):2665–78.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Cohen SM, VanHandel MM, Branson BM, Blair JM, Hall HI, Hu X, Koenig LJ, et al. Vital signs: HIV prevention through care and treatment—United States. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2011;60(47):1618–23.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Cohen MS, Chen YQ, McCauley M, et al. Prevention of HIV-1 infection with early antiretroviral therapy. N Engl J Med. 2011;365(6):493–505.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    District of Columbia Department of Health. Red Carpet Entry: HIV care and treatment is open to everyone. Available at:,a,1371,q,604999.asp. Accessed Apr 22, 2013.
  31. 31.
    Erwin J, Morgan M, Britten N, Gray K, Peters B. Pathways to HIV testing and care by black African and white patients in London. Sexually Transm Infect. 2002;78(1):37–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Foley EE. HIV/AIDS and African immigrant women in Philadelphia: structural and cultural barriers to care. AIDS Care. 2005;17(8):1030–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Deren S, Shedlin M, Decena CU, Mino M. Research challenges to the study of HIV/AIDS among migrant and immigrant Hispanic populations in the United States. J Urban Health-Bulletin NY Acad Med 2005;82(2):III13–25.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    London AS, Driscoll AK. Correlates of HIV/AIDS knowledge among U.S.-born and foreign-born Hispanics in the United States. J Immigr Health. 1999;1(4):195–205.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York (Outside the USA) 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Leigh A. Willis
    • 1
    • 3
  • Jenevieve Opoku
    • 2
  • Ashley Murray
    • 1
  • Tiffany West
    • 2
  • Anna Satcher Johnson
    • 1
  • Gregory Pappas
    • 2
  • Madeline Y. Sutton
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention, National Centers for HIV, Viral Hepatitis, STD and TB PreventionCenters for Disease Control and PreventionDruid HillsUSA
  2. 2.HIV/AIDS, Hepatitis, STD, and TB AdministrationDistrict of Columbia Department of HealthWashingtonUSA

Personalised recommendations