Table 8 The definition of key variables

From: Education Fever in China: Children’s Academic Performance and Parents’ Life Satisfaction

Variable Definition
Dependent variable
Life satisfaction Life satisfaction, ranging from 1 to 5
Happiness Happiness, ranging from 0–10
Academic performance
Ranking Children’s academic score ranking in class, ranging from 1 to 5. 1 (bottom 24%), 2 (top 51 to top 75%), 3 (top 26 to top 50%), 4 (top 11% to top 25%), 5 (top 10%)
Language evaluation Parent’s evaluation of child’s academic performance in language, ranging from 1 to 4
Math evaluation Parent’s evaluation of child’s academic performance in math, ranging from 1 to 4
Child characteristics
Gender Gender of the child. If male, then Gender = 1; otherwise Gender = 0
Health Self-rated health status of the child. If healthy, then Health = 1; otherwise Health = 0
Sibling size Number of children in the family
Key school Indicator for key school. If the child attends key school, then Key school = 1; otherwise Key school = 0
Key class Indicator for key class. If child attends key class, then Key class = 1; otherwise Key class = 0
Parent characteristics
Ln_income Logarithm of annual household per capital income (CNY)
Relative income Self-rated relative income status, ranging from 1 to 5
Age2 The square of the age (÷10) of parent
Marry If the parent is married, then Marry = 1; otherwise Marry = 0
Health Self-rated health status of the parent. If healthy, then Health = 1; otherwise Health = 0
Employ Employment status of the parent. If the parent is employed, then Employ = 1; otherwise Employ = 0
Education level Education level of the parent, ranging from 0 to 8, 0 (illiterate/semi-literate), 1 (kindergarten), 2 (primary school), 3 (middle school), 4 (high school), 5 (2- or 3-year college), 6 (4-year college/Bachelor’s degree), 7 (master’s degree), 8 (doctoral degree)
Ln_comm Logarithm of monthly communication fee (CNY)
Region characteristics
GDP Logarithm of province-level per capita GDP (CNY)
Urbanization The percentage of the total population living in urban areas, defined by the province
Expenditure rate The ratio of science, education and social security expenditure of total public expenditure, defined by the province
Parent involvement
Training Indicator for attending private tutoring classes. If the child attended private tutoring last month, then Training = 1; otherwise Training = 0
Ln_fee Logarithm of private tutoring fees that year (CNY)
Instrumental variables
Class satisfaction Student’s satisfaction towards class teacher, ranging from 1 to 5
Language satisfaction Student’s satisfaction towards Chinese language teacher, ranging from 1 to 5
Math satisfaction Student’s satisfaction towards math teacher, ranging from 1 to 5
  1. The category variables, including Life satisfaction, Happiness, Ranking, Language evaluation, Math evaluation, Relative income, Class satisfaction, Language satisfaction, Math satisfaction, are better with higher value