Parental involvement in education has been positively associated with children’s academic development and well-being, but whether high parental involvement, regardless of its form, always yields desirable results in adolescent development remains debatable. The purpose of this study was to investigate the integral contributions of parental involvement, autonomy support, and psychological control in predicting adolescent learning motivation (i.e., achievement goals and academic engagement) and subjective well-being (SWB) by implementing a person-centered approach. Participants included 3378 Chinese adolescents (Mage = 15.60, SD = 1.55; 1513 boys), who completed a survey. Results revealed four parenting profiles: high control‒low involvement (Profile 1; 7.55%), moderate all (Profile 2; 50.65%), high all (Profile 3; 4.00%), and high autonomy support–moderate involvement (Profile 4; 37.80%). Adolescents in Profile 4 were more adaptive, more engaged, and happier than those in other profiles; and those in Profile 1 were more maladaptive, a condition relating to poorer development. Although adolescents in Profile 3 also perceived both high involvement and autonomy support from parents, they actually exhibited levels of learning motivation and SWB similar to those in Profile 2 and experienced higher performance-avoidance goals, negative affect, and lower life satisfaction relative to Profile 4. Findings suggest that more perceived parental involvement is not always better because the effectiveness of involvement partly depends on the approach that parents take.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Al-Alwan, A. F. (2014). Modeling the relations among parental involvement, school engagement and academic performance of high school students. International Education Studies, 7, 47–56. https://doi.org/10.5539/ies.v7n4p47.
Asparouhov, T., & Muthén, B. O. (2014). Auxiliary variables in mixture modeling: Three-step approaches using Mplus. Structural Equation Modeling, 21, 329–341. https://doi.org/10.1080/10705511.2014.915181.
Bakk, Z., Tekle, F. B., & Vermunt, J. K. (2013). Estimating the association between latent class membership and external variables using bias-adjusted three-step approaches. Sociological Methodology, 43, 272–311. https://doi.org/10.1177/0081175012470644.
Bradburn, N. M. (1969). The structure of psychological well-being. Chicago, IL: Aldine.
Browne, M. W., & Cudeck, R. (1993). Alternative ways of assessing model fit. In K. Bolen & J. Long (Eds.), Testing structural equation models (pp. 136–162). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Bulotsky-Shearer, R. J., Wen, X., Faria, A. M., Hahs-Vaughn, D. L., & Korfmacher, J. (2012). National profiles of classroom quality and family involvement: A multilevel examination of proximal influences on Head Start children’s school readiness. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 27, 627–639. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecresq.2012.02.001.
Castro, M., Expósito-Casas, E., López-Martín, E., Lizasoain, L., Navarro-Asencio, E., & Gaviria, J. L. (2015). Parental involvement on student academic achievement: A meta-analysis. Educational Research Review, 14, 33–46. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.edurev.2015.01.002.
Chao, R. K. (1994). Beyond parental control and authoritarian parenting style: Understanding Chinese parenting through the cultural notion of training. Child Development, 65, 1111–1119. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.1994.tb00806.x.
Chen, W.-W., & Ho, H.-Z. (2012). The relation between perceived parental involvement and academic achievement: The roles of Taiwanese students’ academic beliefs and filial piety. International Journal of Psychology, 47, 315–324. https://doi.org/10.1080/00207594.2011.630004.
Chen, W., & Zhang, J. (2004). Factorial and construct validity of the Chinese positive and negative affect scale for student. Chinese Mental Health Journal, 18, 763–765.
Cheung, C. S. S., & Pomerantz, E. M. (2011). Parents’ involvement in children’s learning in the United States and China: Implications for children’s academic and emotional adjustment. Child Development, 82, 932–950. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2011.01582.x.
Chirkov, V. I., & Ryan, R. M. (2001). Parent and teacher autonomy support in Russian and U.S. adolescents common effects and well-being and academic motivation. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 32, 618–635. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022022101032005006.
Ciani, K. D., Sheldon, K. M., Hilpert, J. C., & Easter, M. A. (2011). Antecedents and trajectories of achievement goals: A self-determination theory perspective. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 81, 223–243. https://doi.org/10.1348/000709910X517399.
Cooper, H., Lindsay, J. J., & Nye, B. (2000). Homework in the home: How student, family, and parenting-style differences relate to the homework process. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 25, 464–487. https://doi.org/10.1006/ceps.1999.1036.
Costa, S., Cuzzocrea, F., Gugliandolo, M. C., & Larcan, R. (2016). Associations between parental psychological control and autonomy support, and psychological outcomes in adolescents: The mediating role of need satisfaction and need frustration. Child Indicators Research, 9, 1059–1076. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12187-015-9353-z.
Darling, N., & Steinberg, L. (1993). Parenting style as context: An integrative model. Psychological Bulletin, 113, 487–496. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.113.3.487.
Datu, J. A. D., & King, R. B. (2018). Subjective well-being is reciprocally associated with academic engagement: A two-wave longitudinal study. Journal of School Psychology, 69, 100–110. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsp.2018.05.007.
Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1985). The general causality orientations scale: Self-determination in personality. Journal of Research in Personality, 19, 109–134. https://doi.org/10.1016/0092-6566(85)90023-6.
Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2000). The “what” and “why” of goal pursuits: Human needs and the delf-determination of behavior. Psychological Inquiry, 11(4), 37–41. https://doi.org/10.1207/S15327965PLI1104.
Deci, E. L., Ryan, R. M., Gagné, M., Leone, D. R., Usunov, J., & Kornazheva, B. P. (2001). Need satisfaction, motivation, and well-being in the work organizations of a former Eastern Bloc country: A cross-cultural study of self-determination. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 27, 930–942. https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167201278002.
Di Mari, R., Oberski, D. L., & Vermunt, J. K. (2016). Bias-adjusted three-step latent Markov modeling with covariates. Structural Equation Modeling, 23, 649–660. https://doi.org/10.1080/10705511.2016.1191015.
Díaz, R. P., & Arroyo, J. C. (2013). Personality factors, affect, and autonomy support as predictors of life satisfaction. Universitas Psychologica, 12, 41–53.
Diener, E., Suh, E. M., Lucas, R. E., & Smith, H. L. (1999). Subjective well-being: Three decades of progress. Psychological Bulletin, 125, 276–302.
Diseth, Å., & Samdal, O. (2014). Autonomy support and achievement goals as predictors of perceived school performance and life satisfaction in the transition between lower and upper secondary school. Social Psychology of Education, 17, 269–291. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11218-013-9244-4.
Dotterer, A. M., & Wehrspann, E. (2016). Parental involvement and academic outcomes among urban adolescents: Examining the role of school engagement. Educational Psychology, 36, 812–830. https://doi.org/10.1080/01443410.2015.1099617.
Duchesne, S., & Ratelle, C. (2010). Parental behaviors and adolescents’ achievement goals at the beginning of middle school: Emotional problems as potential mediators. Journal of Educational Psychology, 102, 497–507. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0019320.
Dunn, T. J., Baguley, T., & Brunsden, V. (2014). From alpha to omega: A practical solution to the pervasive problem of internal consistency estimation. British Journal of Psychology, 105, 399–412. https://doi.org/10.1111/bjop.12046.
Dweck, C. S., & Leggett, E. L. (1988). A social cognitive approach to motivation and personality. Psychological Review, 95, 256–273. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.95.2.256.
Elliot, A. J., & Church, M. A. (1997). A hierarchical model of approach and avoidance achievement motivation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 72, 218–232. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3522.214.171.124.
Epstein, J. L., & Sanders, M. G. (2002). Family, school, and community partnerships. In M. H. Bornstein (Ed.), Handbook of parenting (Vol. 5, pp. 143–167). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Flouri, E., & Buchanan, A. (2003). The role of father involvement and mother involvement in adolescents’ psychological well-being. British Journal of Social Work, 33, 399–406. https://doi.org/10.1093/bjsw/33.3.399.
Fredricks, J. A., Blumenfeld, P. C., & Paris, A. H. (2004). School engagement: Potential of the concept, state of the evidence. Review of Educational Research, 74, 59–109. https://doi.org/10.3102/00346543074001059.
Froiland, J. M. (2011). Parental autonomy support and student learning goals: A preliminary examination of an intrinsic motivation intervention. Child & Youth Care Forum, 40, 135–149. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10566-010-9126-2.
Gagné, M., Ryan, R. M., & Bargmann, K. (2003). Autonomy support and need satisfaction in the motivation and well-being of gymnasts. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 15, 372–390. https://doi.org/10.1080/714044203.
Grolnick, W. S. (2003). The psychology of parental control: How well-meant parenting backfires. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. https://doi.org/10.1097/00004703-200402000-00016.
Grolnick, W. S., & Ryan, R. M. (1989). Parent styles associated with children’s self-regulation and competence in school. Journal of Educational Psychology, 81, 143–154. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-06126.96.36.199.
Gu, H., & Wen, Z. (2017). Reporting and interpreting multidimensional test scores: A bi-factor perspective. Psychological Development and Education, 33, 504–512.
Guay, F., Ratelle, C., Larose, S., Vallerand, R. J., & Vitaro, F. (2013). The number of autonomy-supportive relationships: Are more relationships better for motivation, perceived competence, and achievement? Contemporary Educational Psychology, 38, 375–382. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cedpsych.2013.07.005.
Hill, N. E., & Tyson, D. F. (2009). Parental involvement in middle school: A meta-analytic assessment of the strategies that promote achievement. Developmental Psychology, 45, 740–763. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0015362.
Hu, L. T., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 6, 1–55. https://doi.org/10.1080/10705519909540118.
Huebner, E. S. (1994). Preliminary development and validation of a multidimensional life satisfaction scale for children. Psychological Assessment, 6, 149–158. https://doi.org/10.1037/1040-35188.8.131.52.
Jang, H., Kim, E. J., & Reeve, J. (2016). Why students become more engaged or more disengaged during the semester: A self-determination theory dual-process model. Learning and Instruction, 43, 27–38. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.learninstruc.2016.01.002.
Jeynes, W. H. (2005). A meta-analysis of the relation of parental involvement to urban elementary school student academic achievement. Urban Education, 40, 237–269. https://doi.org/10.1177/0042085905274540.
Jiang, J. C., & Liu, H. S. (2005). Research on the relationship between the achievement goal orientation and the learning strategy and the academic performance. Psychological Development & Education, 27, 168–170.
King, R. B., Ganotice, F. A., & Watkins, D. A. (2014). A cross-cultural analysis of achievement and social goals among Chinese and Filipino students. Social Psychology of Education, 17, 439–455. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11218-014-9251-0.
Korhonen, J., Linnanmäki, K., & Aunio, P. (2014). Learning difficulties, academic well-being and educational dropout: A person-centred approach. Learning and Individual Differences, 31, 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lindif.2013.12.011.
Kraemer, H. C., Kiernan, M., Essex, M., & Kupfer, D. J. (2008). How and why criteria defining moderators and mediators differ between the Baron and Kenny and MacArthur approaches. Health Psychology, 27(2S), S101–S108. https://doi.org/10.1037/0278-6133.27.2(Suppl.).S101.
Kraemer, H. C., Stice, E., Kazdin, A., Offord, D., & Kupfer, D. (2001). How do risk factors work together to produce an outcome? Mediators, moderators, independent, overlapping, and proxy risk factors. American Journal of Psychiatry, 158, 848–856. https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.158.6.848.
Lam, S., Jimerson, S., Wong, B. P. H., Kikas, E., Shin, H., Veiga, F. H., et al. (2014). Understanding and measuring student engagement in school: The results of an international study from 12 countries. School Psychology Quarterly, 29, 213–232. https://doi.org/10.1037/spq0000057.
Lekes, N., Gingras, I., Philippe, F. L., Koestner, R., & Fang, J. (2010). Parental autonomy-support, intrinsic life goals, and well-being among adolescents in China and North America. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 39, 858–869. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-009-9451-7.
Li, R., Yao, M., Liu, H., & Chen, Y. (2019). Relationships among autonomy support, psychological control, coping, and loneliness: Comparing victims with nonvictims. Personality and Individual Differences, 138, 266–272. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2018.10.001.
Liem, A. D., Lau, S., & Nie, Y. (2008). The role of self-efficacy, task value, and achievement goals in predicting learning strategies, task disengagement, peer relationship, and achievement outcome. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 33, 486–512. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cedpsych.2007.08.001.
Litalien, D., Morin, A. J. S., & McInerney, D. M. (2017). Generalizability of achievement goal profiles across five cultural groups: More similarities than differences. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 51(August), 267–283. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cedpsych.2017.08.008.
Little, T. D., Jorgensen, T. D., Lang, K. M., & Moore, E. W. G. (2013). On the joys of missing data. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 39, 151–162. https://doi.org/10.1093/jpepsy/jst048.
Lu, M., Walsh, K., White, S., & Shield, P. (2017). The associations between perceived maternal psychological control and academic performance and academic self-concept in Chinese adolescents: The mediating role of basic psychological needs. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 26, 1285–1297. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-016-0651-y.
Lubke, G., & Muthén, B. O. (2007). Performance of factor mixture models as a function of model size, covariate effects, and class-specific parameters. Structural Equation Modeling, 14, 26–47. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15328007sem1401_2.
Luo, W., Aye, K. M., Hogan, D., Kaur, B., & Chan, M. C. Y. (2013). Parenting behaviors and learning of Singapore students: The mediational role of achievement goals. Motivation and Emotion, 37, 274–285. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11031-012-9303-8.
Luo, W., Paris, S. G., Hogan, D., & Luo, Z. (2011). Do performance goals promote learning? A pattern analysis of Singapore students’ achievement goals. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 36, 165–176. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cedpsych.2011.02.003.
Marbell, K. N., & Grolnick, W. S. (2013). Correlates of parental control and autonomy support in an interdependent culture: A look at Ghana. Motivation and Emotion, 37, 79–92. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11031-012-9289-2.
Marsh, H. W., Hau, K. T., & Wen, Z. (2004). In search of golden rules: Comment on hypothesis-testing approaches to setting cutoff values for fit indexes and dangers in overgeneralizing Hu and Bentler’s (1999) findings. Structural Equation Modeling, 11, 320–341. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15328007sem1103_2.
McDonald, R. P. (1999). Test theory: A unified treatment. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8317.1981.tb00621.x.
McGregor, H. A., & Elliot, A. J. (2002). Achievement goals as predictors of achievement-relevant processes prior to task engagement. Journal of Educational Psychology, 94, 381–395. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-06184.108.40.2061.
McMullen, J., Van Hoof, J., Degrande, T., Verschaffel, L., & Van Dooren, W. (2018). Profiles of rational number knowledge in Finnish and Flemish students: A multigroup latent class analysis. Learning and Individual Differences, 66, 70–77. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lindif.2018.02.005.
McNeish, D. (2017). Thanks coefficient alpha, we’ll take it from here. Psychological Methods. https://doi.org/10.1037/met0000144.
Meng, L., & Ma, Q. (2015). Live as we choose: The role of autonomy support in facilitating intrinsic motivation. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 98, 441–447. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2015.08.009.
Michou, A., Matos, L., & Gargurevich, R. (2016). Building on the enriched hierarchical model of achievement motivation: Autonomous and controlling reasons underlying mastery goals. Psychologica Belgica, 56, 269–287. https://doi.org/10.5334/pb.281.
Mih, V., Mih, C., & Dragoş, V. (2015). Achievement goals and behavioral and emotional engagement as precursors of academic adjusting. Procedia: Social and Behavioral Sciences, 209, 329–336. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.11.243.
Mo, Y., & Singh, K. (2008). Parents’ relationships and involvement: Effects on students’ school engagement and performance. RMLE Online, 31(10), 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1080/19404476.2008.11462053.
Morin, A. J. S., Maïano, C., Nagengast, B., Marsh, H. W., Morizot, J., & Janosz, M. (2011). General growth mixture analysis of adolescents’ developmental trajectories of anxiety: The impact of untested invariance assumptions on substantive interpretations. Structural Equation Modeling, 18, 613–648. https://doi.org/10.1080/10705511.2011.607714.
Muthén, L. K., & Muthén, B. O. (2014). Mplus user’s guide. Los Angeles, CA: Muthén & Muthén.
Nagin, D. S. (2005). Group-based modeling of development. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Nylund-Gibson, K., Grimm, R., Quirk, M., & Furlong, M. (2014). A latent transition mixture model using the three-step specification. Structural Equation Modeling, 21, 439–454. https://doi.org/10.1080/10705511.2014.915375.
Peugh, J. L., & Enders, C. K. (2004). Missing data in educational research: A review of reporting practices and suggestions for improvement. Review of Educational Research, 74, 525–556. https://doi.org/10.3102/00346543074004525.
Pintrich, P. R. (2000). An achievement goal theory perspective on issues in motivation terminology, theory, and research. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 25, 92–104. https://doi.org/10.1006/ceps.1999.1017.
Pintrich, P. R. (2003). A motivational science perspective on the role of student motivation in learning and teaching contexts. Journal of Educational Psychology, 95, 667–686. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-06220.127.116.117.
Pomerantz, E. M., Moorman, E. A., & Litwack, S. D. (2007). The how, whom, and why of parents’ involvement in children’s academic lives: More is not always better. Review of Educational Research, 77, 373–410. https://doi.org/10.3102/003465430305567.
Pomerantz, E. M., Moorman, E. A., & Litwack, S. D. (2012). Parents’ involvement in children’s learning? In K. R. Harris, S. Graham, & T. Urdan (Eds.), APA educational psychology handbook: Individual differences and cultural and contextual factors (Vol. 2, pp. 417–440). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. https://doi.org/10.1037/13274-017.
Ratelle, C. F., Duchesne, S., & Guay, F. (2017). Predicting school adjustment from multiple perspectives on parental behaviors. Journal of Adolescence, 54, 60–72. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.adolescence.2016.11.008.
Ratelle, C. F., Simard, K., & Guay, F. (2013). University students’ subjective well-being: The role of autonomy support from parents, friends, and the romantic partner. Journal of Happiness Studies, 14, 893–910. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10902-012-9360-4.
Ryan, R. M., & Brown, K. W. (2005). Legislating competence: High-stakes testing policies and their relations with psychological theories and research. In A. J. Elliot & C. S. Dweck (Eds.), Handbook of competence and motivation. New York, NY: Guilford.
Samaha, M., & Hawi, N. S. (2016). Relationships among smartphone addiction, stress, academic performance, and satisfaction with life. Computers in Human Behavior, 57, 321–325. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2015.12.045.
Schlomer, G. L., Bauman, S., & Card, N. A. (2010). University students’ subjective well-being: The role of autonomy support from parents, friends, and the romantic partner. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 57, 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0018082.
Schwinger, M., & Wild, E. (2012). Prevalence, stability, and functionality of achievement goal profiles in mathematics from third to seventh grade. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 37, 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cedpsych.2011.08.001.
Shek, D. T. L. (2006). A longitudinal study of perceived parental psychological control and psychological well-being in Chinese adolescents in Hong Kong. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 63, 1–22. https://doi.org/10.1002/jclp.20331.
Shim, S. S., & Finch, W. H. (2014). Academic and social achievement goals and early adolescents’ adjustment: A latent class approach. Learning and Individual Differences, 30, 98–105. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lindif.2013.10.015.
Siu, O. L., Bakker, A. B., & Jiang, X. (2014). Psychological capital among university students: Relationships with study engagement and intrinsic motivation. Journal of Happiness Studies, 15, 979–994. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10902-013-9459-2.
Soenens, B., & Vansteenkiste, M. (2010). A theoretical upgrade of the concept of parental psychological control: Proposing new insights on the basis of self-determination theory. Developmental Review, 30, 74–99. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dr.2009.11.001.
Soenens, B., Vansteenkiste, M., & Sierens, E. (2009). How are parental psychological control and autonomy-support related? A cluster-analytic approach. Journal of Marriage and Family, 71, 187–202. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1741-3737.2008.00589.x.
Stone, L. L., Otten, R., Janssens, J. M. A. M., Soenens, B., Kuntsche, E., & Engels, R. C. M. E. (2013). Does parental psychological control relate to internalizing and externalizing problems in early childhood? An examination using the Berkeley puppet interview. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 37, 309–318. https://doi.org/10.1177/0165025413490865.
Tian, L., & Liu, W. (2005). Test of the Chinese version of multidimensional students’ life satisfaction scale. Chinese Mental Health Journal, 19, 301–303.
Trezise, K., & Reeve, R. A. (2018). Patterns of anxiety in algebraic problem solving: A three-step latent variable analysis. Learning and Individual Differences, 66, 78–91. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lindif.2018.02.007.
Vansteenkiste, M., & Ryan, R. M. (2013). On psychological growth and vulnerability: Basic psychological need satisfaction and need frustration as a unifying principle. Journal of Psychotherapy Integration, 23, 263–280. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0032359.
Vermunt, J. K. (2010). Latent class modeling with covariates: Two improved three-step approaches. Political Analysis, 18, 450–469. https://doi.org/10.1093/pan/mpq025.
Walker, J. M. T., Wilkins, A. S., Dallaire, J. R., Sandler, H. M., & Hoover-Dempsey, K. V. (2005). Parental involvement: Model revision through scale development. The Elementary School Journal, 106, 85–104. https://doi.org/10.1086/499193.
Wang, Q., Pomerantz, E. M., & Chen, H. (2007). The role of parents’ control in early adolescents’ psychological functioning: A longitudinal investigation in the United States and China. Child Development Perspectives, 78, 1592–1610. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2007.01085.x.
Wang, Y., Tian, L., & Huebner, E. S. (2019). Basic psychological needs satisfaction at school behavioral school engagement, and academic achievement: Longitudinal reciprocal relations among elementary school students. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 56, 130–139. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cedpsych.2019.01.003.
Wei, J., Liu, R. D., He, Y. L., Tang, M., Di, M. C., & Zhuang, H. J. (2014). Mediating role of learning persistence and engagement in relations among self-efficacy, intrinsic value and academic achievement. Studies of Psychology and Behavior, 12, 326–332.
Weltevreden, G. M., van Hooft, E. A. J., & van Vianen, A. E. M. (2018). Parental behavior and adolescent’s achievement goals in sport. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 30, 12–131. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2018.08.004.
Wen, Z. L., & Ye, B. J. (2011). Evaluating test reliability: From coefficient alpha to internal consistency reliability. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 43, 821–829.
Wong, M. M. (2008). Perceptions of parental involvement and autonomy support: Their relations with self-regulation, academic performance, substance use and resilience among adolescents. North American Journal of Psychology, 10, 497–518.
Wu, N. N., & Yao, M. L. (2013). Parental involvement and vocational school students’ academic engagement: The moderation role of parenting style. Psychological Science, 36, 899–903.
Yap, S. T., & Baharudin, R. (2016). The relationship between adolescents’ perceived parental involvement, self-efficacy beliefs, and subjective well-being: A multiple mediator model. Social Indicators Research, 126, 257–278. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11205-015-0882-0.
Ye, B., & Yang, Q. (2015). Estimating the confidence interval of composite reliability of a unidimensional test with correlated errors using Delta method: FAD as an example. Psychological Exploration, 35, 215–256.
Yu, S., Chen, B., Levesque-Bristol, C., & Vansteenkiste, M. (2016). Chinese education examined via the lens of self-determination. Educational Psychology Review, 30, 177–214. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10648-016-9395-x.
Zhu, Y., Steele, F., & Moustaki, I. (2017). A general 3-step maximum likelihood approach to estimate the effects of multiple latent categorical variables on a distal outcome. Structural Equation Modeling, 24, 643–656. https://doi.org/10.1080/10705511.2017.1324310.
Zong, X., Zhang, L., & Yao, M. (2018). Parental involvement and Chinese elementary students’ achievement goals: The moderating role of parenting style. Educational Studies, 44, 341–356. https://doi.org/10.1080/03055698.2017.1373634.
This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.
The authors declared no potential conflicts of interest with respect to the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
Electronic supplementary material
Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material.
About this article
Cite this article
Li, R., Yao, M., Liu, H. et al. Chinese Parental Involvement and Adolescent Learning Motivation and Subjective Well-Being: More is not Always Better. J Happiness Stud 21, 2527–2555 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10902-019-00192-w
- Parental involvement
- Autonomy support
- Psychological control
- Achievement goal
- Subjective well-being