To investigate the potential of psychological capital as a resource for academic adjustment, 250 BA students were asked to complete two questionnaires, one assessing participants’ psychological capacity, the other academic adjustment. Average grade-point scores were collected at two points in time as an additional measure of academic adjustment. Correlational as well as SEM analyses suggest that psychological capital is a positive resource with a central role in students’ academic adjustment. The study extends knowledge on the impact of psychological capital on positive organizational behavior by generalizing it to higher education.
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The original version of this article was revised: The Appendix 2 was removed.
Appendix 1: Demographic Information Questionnaire
Appendix 2: Psychological Capital Questionnaire (PCQ). This appendix has been removed because the authors have not obtained permission to reproduce the Psychological Capital Questionnaire (PCQ).
Appendix 3: Academic Adjustment Questionnaire
The following statements refer to personal attitudes and feelings many students may have with regard to their academic life. Please read each statement and circle the number that best describes your feelings regarding you as a university student.
|Suits me very much||Doesn’t suit me at all|
|1.||Lately I’ve been feeling tense or nervous||1||2||3||4||5||6||7||8||9|
|2.||I keep up to date with my academic duties||1||2||3||4||5||6||7||8||9|
|3.||On campus I meet people and make friends||1||2||3||4||5||6||7||8||9|
|4.||Lately I’ve been feeling downcast and moody||1||2||3||4||5||6||7||8||9|
|5.||I’m very much involved in university social activities||1||2||3||4||5||6||7||8||9|
|6.||I’m happy with my decision to study at my university||1||2||3||4||5||6||7||8||9|
|7.||I have several close social ties at the university at which I study||1||2||3||4||5||6||7||8||9|
|8.||My academic goals are clear to me.||1||2||3||4||5||6||7||8||9|
|9.||Lately I have not been able to control my emotions very well||1||2||3||4||5||6||7||8||9|
|10.||I’m not satisfied with the variety of courses proposed at my university||1||2||3||4||5||6||7||8||9|
|11.||I’m satisfied with extracurricular activities at the university||1||2||3||4||5||6||7||8||9|
|12.||Lately I’ve been thinking about seeking psychological help||1||2||3||4||5||6||7||8||9|
|13.||If I could turn the clock back, I’d choose to study at another academic institution||1||2||3||4||5||6||7||8||9|
|14.||Lately I’ve been getting angry far too easily||1||2||3||4||5||6||7||8||9|
|15.||Even if I make an effort, I still don’t do well academically||1||2||3||4||5||6||7||8||9|
|16.||I have difficulty feeling comfortable in connecting with other students||1||2||3||4||5||6||7||8||9|
|17.||I haven’t been sleeping well lately||1||2||3||4||5||6||7||8||9|
|18.||I’m satisfied with the level of courses provided at my university||1||2||3||4||5||6||7||8||9|
|19.||I enjoy academic work||1||2||3||4||5||6||7||8||9|
|20.||I often feel lonely||1||2||3||4||5||6||7||8||9|
|21.||I find it hard to begin working on my course requirements||1||2||3||4||5||6||7||8||9|
|22.||I don’t use study time effectively.||1||2||3||4||5||6||7||8||9|
|23.||The services provided by the university’s offices meet my needs||1||2||3||4||5||6||7||8||9|
|24.||I am satisfied with my social life at the university campus||1||2||3||4||5||6||7||8||9|
|25.||I have good friends to talk with about problems||1||2||3||4||5||6||7||8||9|
|26.||I have trouble coping with study-related stress||1||2||3||4||5||6||7||8||9|
|27.||I think that my university is a good place to study||1||2||3||4||5||6||7||8||9|
|28.||I’m satisfied with the logistical services provided by my university (e.g., parking space, public transportation, cleanliness, food)||1||2||3||4||5||6||7||8||9|
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Cite this article
Hazan Liran, B., Miller, P. The Role of Psychological Capital in Academic Adjustment Among University Students. J Happiness Stud 20, 51–65 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10902-017-9933-3
- Positive psychology
- Psychological capital
- Academic adjustment
- University students