Journal of Happiness Studies

, Volume 19, Issue 3, pp 663–675 | Cite as

11-M Victims 3 Years After Madrid Terrorist Attacks: Looking for Health Beyond Trauma

  • Darío Díaz
  • Maria Stavraki
  • Amalio Blanco
  • Miriam Bajo
Research Paper

Abstract

Although there is a growing body of evidence that health is the presence of well-being and not just the absence of a disease, research related to victims of terrorists attacks is mostly focused on the presence/absence of pathology (e.g. PTSD). The present study aims to apply the Complete State Model of Health to evaluate the mental health status of 69 direct victims of 11-M terrorist attack three years after the event. The results of Horn’s Parallel Analysis and CFA confirmed that the measures of positive mental health (well-being indicators) and illness (PTSD) loaded on separate but correlated factors. This is to say, the absence of PTSD in our sample was not equivalent to the presence of health. However, although positive health and illness indicators should be considered as two different factors, they were closely related. In fact, three well-being indicators were strongly associated with PTSD: positive affect, self-acceptance and positive relations. These findings suggest the need to work to ensure victims’ positive health.

Keywords

Trauma Terrorism Well-being Positive health Positive psychology 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This research was supported by Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness—Government of Spain (PSI2012-37808; SEJ2006-14894).

References

  1. Altman, D. G., & Gardner, M. J. (1988). Statistics in Medicine: Calculating confidence intervals for regression and correlation. British Medical Journal, 296, 1238–1242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Antonovsky, A. (1979). Health, stress and coping. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  4. Blanco, A., Blanco, R., & Díaz, D. (2016). Social (dis)order and psychosocial trauma: Look earlier, look outside, and look beyond the persons. American Psychologist, 71, 187–198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Blanco, A., & Díaz, D. (2005). Social well-being: Theoretical structure and measurement. Psicothema, 17, 582–589.Google Scholar
  6. Blanco, A., Díaz, D., Gaborit, M., & Amaris, M. C. (2010). World schema and self schema: The posttraumatic cognitions inventory (PTCI) in hispanic population. Revista Latinoamericana de Psicología, 42, 97–110.Google Scholar
  7. Bobes, J., Calcedo-Barba, A., García, M., Francois, M., Rico-Villademoros, F., González, M., et al. (2000). Evaluación de las propiedades psicométricas de la versión española de cinco cuestionarios para la evaluación del trastorno de estrés postraumático. [Evaluation of the psychometric properties of the Spanish version of five questionnaires for the assessment of post-traumatic stress disorders]. Actas Españolas de Psiquiatría, 28, 207–218.Google Scholar
  8. Bracken, P. J., Giller, J. E., & Summerfield, D. (1995). Psychological responses to war and atrocity: The limitations of current concepts. Social Science and Medicine, 40, 1073–1082.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cabañero, M. J., Richart, M., Cabrero, J., Orts, M. I., Reig, A., & Tosal, B. (2004). Reliability and validity of the satisfaction with life scale of Diener in pregnant and puerperium women. Psicothema, 16, 448–455.Google Scholar
  10. Carmassi, C., Akiskal, H. S., Bessonov, D., Massimetti, G., Calderani, E., Stratta, P., et al. (2014). Gender differences in DSM-5 versus DSM-IV-TR PTSD prevalence and criteria comparison among 512 survivors to the L’Aquila earthquake. Journal of Affective Disorders, 160, 55–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Davidson, J. R. T., Book, S. W., Colket, J. T., Tupler, L. A., Roth, S., David, D., et al. (1997). Assessment of a new self-rating scale for post-traumatic stress disorder. Psychological Medicine, 27, 153–160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. De la Corte, L., Kruglanski, A., De Miguel, J. M., Sabucedo, J. M., & Díaz, D. (2007). Seven psychosocial principles for explaining terrorism. Psicothema, 19, 367–374.Google Scholar
  13. Díaz, D., Blanco, A., Horcajo, J., & Valle, C. (2007). Depression and the complete state model of health. Psicothema, 19, 286–294.Google Scholar
  14. Díaz, D., Rodríguez-Carvajal, R., Blanco, A., Moreno-Jiménez, B., Gallardo, I., Valle, C., et al. (2006). Spanish adaptation of the Psychological Well-Being Scales (PWBS). Psicothema, 18, 572–577.Google Scholar
  15. Diener, E., Emmons, R., Larsen, R., & Griffin, S. (1985). The satisfaction with life scale. Journal of Personality Assessment, 49, 71–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Diener, E., Suh, E., Lucas, R., & Smith, H. (1999). Subjective well-being: Three decades of progress. Psychological Bulletin, 125, 276–302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. DiGrande, L., Neria, Y., Brackbill, R. M., Pulliam, P., & Galea, S. (2011). Long-term posttraumatic stress symptoms among 3271 civilian survivors of the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center. American Journal of Epidemiology, 173, 271–281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Fabrigar, L. R., Wegener, D. T., MacCallum, R. C., & Strahan, E. J. (1999). Evaluating the use of exploratory factor analysis in psychological research. Psychological Methods, 3, 272–299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. First, M. B., Spitzer, R. L., Gibbon, M., & Williams, J. B. W. (2002). Structured clinical interview for DSM-IV-TR Axis I Disorders (SCID-I). New York: Biometrics Research.Google Scholar
  20. Foa, E. B., Dancu, C. V., Hembree, E. A., Jaycox, L. H., Meadows, E. A., & Street, G. P. (1999). A comparison of exposure therapy, stress inoculation training, and their combination for reducing posttraumatic stress disorder in female assault victims. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 67, 194–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Fredrickson, B. L., Tugade, M. M., Waugh, C. E., & Larkin, G. (2003). What good are positive emotions in crises? A prospective study of resilience and emotions following the terrorist attacks on the United States on September 11th, 2001. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84, 365–376.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Galea, S., Vlahov, D., Resnick, H., Ahern, J., Susser, E., Gold, J., et al. (2003). Trends of probable post-traumatic stress disorder in New York City after the September 11 terrorist attacks. American Journal of Epidemiology, 158, 514–524.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Glorfeld, L. W. (1995). An improvement on Horn’s parallel analysis methodology for selecting the correct number of factors to retain. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 55, 377–393.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Gorsuch, R. L. (1983). Factor analysis (2nd ed.). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  25. Hayton, J. C., Allen, D. G., & Scarpello, V. (2004). Factor retention decisions in exploratory factor analysis: A tutorial on parallel analysis. Organizational Research Methods, 7, 191–205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Helgeson, V. S., Reynolds, K. A., & Tomich, P. L. (2006). A meta-analytic review of benefit finding and growth. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 74, 797–816.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hogarty, K. Y., Hines, C. V., Kromrey, J. D., Ferron, J. M., & Mumford, K. R. (2005). The quality factor solutions in exploratory factor analysis: The influence of sample size, communality, and overdetermination. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 65, 202–226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Keyes, C. (1998). Social well-being. Social Psychology Quarterly, 61, 121–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Keyes, C. (2005). Mental illness and/or mental health? Investigating axioms of the complete state model of health. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 73, 539–548.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Keyes, C., Shmotkin, D., & Ryff, C. (2002). Optimizing well-being: The empirical encounter of two traditions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 82, 1007–1022.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Luttrell, A., Petty, R. E., Briñol, P., & Wagner, B. C. (2016). Making it moral: Merely labeling an attitude as moral increases its strength. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 65, 82–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. MacCallum, R. C., Widaman, K. F., Zhang, S., & Hong, S. (1999). Sample size in factor analysis. Psychological Methods, 4, 84–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Martín-Baró, I. (1998). Political violence and war as causes of psychosocial trauma in El Salvador. International Journal of Mental Health, 18, 3–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Nawijn, L., van Zuiden, M., Frijling, J. L., Koch, S. B., Veltman, D. J., & Olff, M. (2015). Reward functioning in PTSD: a systematic review exploring the mechanisms underlying anhedonia. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 51, 189–204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Neria, Y., DiGrande, L., & Adams, B. G. (2011). Posttraumatic stress disorder following the September 11, 2001, terror attacks: A review of the literature among highly exposed populations. American Psychologist, 66, 429–446.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Neria, Y., Nandi, A., & Galea, S. (2008). Post-traumatic stress disorder following disasters: A systematic review. Psychological Medicine, 38, 467–480.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Norris, F. H., Friedman, M. J., Watson, P. J., Byrne, C. M., Diaz, E., & Kaniasty, K. (2002). 60,000 disaster victims speak: Part I. An empirical review of the empirical literature, 1981-2001. Psychiatry, 65, 207–239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. O’Connor, B. P. (2000). SPSS and SAS programs for determining the number of components using parallel analysis and Velicer’s MAP test. Behaviour Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers, 32, 396–402.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Rimé, B., Páez, D., Basabe, N., & Martínez, F. (2009). Social sharing of emotion, post-traumatic growth, and emotional climate: Follow-up of Spanish citizen’s response to the collective trauma of March 11th terrorist attacks in Madrid. European Journal of Social Psychology, 40, 1029–1045.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Rodríguez-Carvajal, R., Díaz-Méndez, D., Moreno-Jiménez, B., Blanco-Abarca, A., & van Dierendonck, D. (2010). Vitality and inner resources as relevant components of psychological well-being. Psicothema, 22, 63–70.Google Scholar
  41. Ryff, C. (1989). Happiness is everything, or is it? Explorations on the meaning of psychological well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57, 1069–1081.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Santiago, P. N., Ursano, R. J., Gray, C. L., Pynoos, R. S., Spiegel, D., Lewis-Fernandez, R., et al. (2013). A systematic review of PTSD prevalence and trajectories in DSM-5 defined trauma exposed populations: Intentional and non-intentional traumatic events. PLoS ONE, 8, e59236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Shahar, G., Noyman, G., Schnidel-Allon, I., & Gilboa-Schechtman, E. (2013). Do PTSD symptoms and trauma-related cognitions about the self constitute a vicious cycle? Evidence for both cognitive vulnerability and scarring models. Psychiatry Research, 205, 79–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Silver, R. C., Holman, E. A., McIntosh, D. N., Poulin, M., & Gil-Rivas, V. (2002). Nationwide longitudinal study of psychological responses to September 11. JAMA, 288, 1235–1244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Van Dierendonck, D., Díaz, D., Rodríguez-Carvajal, R., Blanco, A., & Moreno-Jiménez, B. (2008). Ryff’s six-factor model of psychological well-being, a Spanish exploration. Social Indicators Research, 87, 473–479.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Vázquez, C., & Hervás, G. (2010). Terrorist attacks and benefit finding: The role of positive and negative emotions. Journal of Positive Psychology, 5, 154–163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Vázquez, C., Hervás, G., & Pérez-Sales, P. (2008). Chronic thought suppression as a vulnerability factor to posttraumatic symptoms: data from the Madrid March 11, 2004 terrorist attack. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 22, 1226–1236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Verger, P., Dab, W., Lamping, D. L., Loze, J. Y., Deschaseaux-Voinet, C., Abenhaim, L., et al. (2004). The psychological impact of terrorism: an epidemiologic study of posttraumatic stress disorder and associated factors in victims of the 1995–1996 bombings in France. American Journal of Psychiatry, 161, 1384–1389.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. World Health Organization. (1946). Constitution of the World Health Organization. American Journal of Public Health and the Nation’s Health, 36, 1315–1323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Ciudad Real Medical School, Department of Medical PsychologyUniversidad de Castilla la ManchaCiudad RealSpain
  2. 2.Department of Developmental PsychologyUniversidad de Castilla la ManchaCiudad RealSpain
  3. 3.Department of Social PsychologyUniversidad Autónoma de MadridMadridSpain

Personalised recommendations