Journal of Happiness Studies

, Volume 19, Issue 3, pp 663–675 | Cite as

11-M Victims 3 Years After Madrid Terrorist Attacks: Looking for Health Beyond Trauma

  • Darío Díaz
  • Maria Stavraki
  • Amalio Blanco
  • Miriam Bajo
Research Paper


Although there is a growing body of evidence that health is the presence of well-being and not just the absence of a disease, research related to victims of terrorists attacks is mostly focused on the presence/absence of pathology (e.g. PTSD). The present study aims to apply the Complete State Model of Health to evaluate the mental health status of 69 direct victims of 11-M terrorist attack three years after the event. The results of Horn’s Parallel Analysis and CFA confirmed that the measures of positive mental health (well-being indicators) and illness (PTSD) loaded on separate but correlated factors. This is to say, the absence of PTSD in our sample was not equivalent to the presence of health. However, although positive health and illness indicators should be considered as two different factors, they were closely related. In fact, three well-being indicators were strongly associated with PTSD: positive affect, self-acceptance and positive relations. These findings suggest the need to work to ensure victims’ positive health.


Trauma Terrorism Well-being Positive health Positive psychology 



This research was supported by Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness—Government of Spain (PSI2012-37808; SEJ2006-14894).


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Ciudad Real Medical School, Department of Medical PsychologyUniversidad de Castilla la ManchaCiudad RealSpain
  2. 2.Department of Developmental PsychologyUniversidad de Castilla la ManchaCiudad RealSpain
  3. 3.Department of Social PsychologyUniversidad Autónoma de MadridMadridSpain

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