Journal of Happiness Studies

, Volume 19, Issue 1, pp 81–97 | Cite as

A Replication of the Reker and Cousins’ Study About the Complementarity Between the Purpose-In-Life Test (PIL) and the Seeking of Noetic Goals (SONG) Among Spanish Young People

  • Joaquín García-Alandete
  • César Rubio-Belmonte
  • Beatriz Soucase Lozano
Research Paper


The main aim of this study was to replicate the Reker and Cousins’ (1979) work about the complementarity between the the Purpose-In-Life Test (PIL), which indicates the degree to which the person has found meaning and purpose in life (presence of meaning), and the Seeking of Noetic Goals (SONG), which measures the degree to which the person is motivated to find meaning and purpose in life (search for meaning). Participants were 349 Spanish undergraduates (224 women, 64.20 %, and 125 men, 35.80 %) between 18 and 26 years old, M = 20.81, SD = 2.17. Principal Component Analysis showed eight factors: four mainly related to the presence of meaning and four mainly related to the search for meaning. The PIL contributed four factors to presence of meaning, whereas the SONG contributed four factors to the search for meaning. The results confirmed the factorial structure, internal consistency, and validity of both scales and their complementarity.


Presence of meaning Search for meaning Purpose In Life test Seeking of Noetic Goals test Logotherapy Meaning-centered therapy 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Joaquín García-Alandete
    • 1
  • César Rubio-Belmonte
    • 1
  • Beatriz Soucase Lozano
    • 1
  1. 1.Universidad Católica de Valencia San Vicente MártirValenciaSpain

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