The College Student Subjective Wellbeing Questionnaire: A Brief, Multidimensional Measure of Undergraduate’s Covitality
- 1.4k Downloads
This study reports on the preliminary development and validation of the College Student Subjective Wellbeing Questionnaire (CSSWQ) with two subsamples of undergraduates. The CSSWQ is a brief, multidimensional, domain-specific measure of college students’ covitality—operationalized by a measurement model comprised of four first-order latent constructs (i.e., academic efficacy, college gratitude, school connectedness, and academic satisfaction) and one second-order latent construct (i.e., college student covitality). Results from exploratory factor analyses, conducted with the first subsample (n = 387), were used to refine a 15-item, four-subscale version of the CSSWQ, which demonstrated strong internal consistency and concurrent validity with several global indicators of subjective wellbeing. Results from confirmatory factor analyses, conducted with the second subsample (n = 584), corroborated the CSSWQ’s four-factor structure and supported the second-order latent construct of college-student covitality. Further concurrent validity analyses conducted with the second subsample, using latent-variable path analysis, indicated that the college-student covitality variable was a strong predictor of both psychological distress and psychological wellness. Analysis of variance also indicated that, when compared with global covitality status (i.e., below average, low average, high average, or above average), college-student covitality status had a stronger effect and thus incremental validity in relation to academic achievement. Implications for theory, research, and practice are discussed.
KeywordsSubjective wellbeing Positive psychology Covitality Mental health
- Antony, M. M., Bieling, P. J., Cox, B. J., Enns, M. W., & Swinson, R. P. (1998). Psychometric properties of the 42-item and 21-item versions of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS) in clinical groups and a community sample. Psychological Assessment, 10, 176–181. doi: 10.1037/1040-3518.104.22.168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Furlong, M. J., You, S., Renshaw, T. L., O’Malley, M. D., & Rebelez, J. (2013). Preliminary development of the Positive Experiences at School Scale for elementary school children. Child Indicators Research, 6, 753–775. doi: 10.1007/s12187-013-9193-7.
- Furlong, M. J., You, S., Renshaw, T. L., Smith, D. C., & O’Malley, M. D. (2014). Preliminary development and validation of the Social and Emotional Health Survey for secondary students. Social Indicators Research, 117, 1011–1032. doi: 10.1007/s11205-013-0373-0. (Advanced online publication).
- Goodenow, C. (1993). The psychological sense of school membership among adolescents: Scale development and educational correlates. Psychology in the Schools, 30, 79–90. doi: 10.1002/1520-6807(199301)30:1<79:AID-PITS2310300113>3.0.CO;2-X.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Kleiman, E. M., Adams, L. M., Kashdan, T. B., & Riskind, J. H. (2013). Gratitude and grit indirectly reduce risk of suicidal ideations by enhancing meaning in life: Evidence for a mediated moderation model. Journal of Research in Personality, 47, 539–546. doi: 10.1016/j.jrp.2013.04.007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Renshaw, T. L., & Cohen, A. S. (2014). Life satisfaction as a distinguishing indicator of college student functioning: Further validation of the two-continua model of mental health. Social Indicators Research, 117, 319–334. doi: 10.1007/s11205-013-0342-7. (Advanced online publication).
- Renshaw, T. L., Furlong, M. J., Dowdy, E., Rebelez, J., Smith, D. C., O’Malley, M. D., et al. (2014a). Covitality: A synergistic conception of youths’ mental health. In M. J. Furlong, R. Gilman, & E. S. Huebner (Eds.), Handbook of positive psychology in the schools (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Renshaw, T. L., Long, A. C. J., & Cook, C. R. (2014b). Assessing adolescents’ positive psychological functioning at school: Development and validation of the Student Subjective Wellbeing Questionnaire. School Psychology Quarterly,. doi: 10.1037/spq0000088. (Advanced online publication).Google Scholar
- Schwarzer, R., Bäßler, J., Kwiatek, P., Schörder, K., & Xin Zhang, J. (1997). The assessment of optimistic self-beliefs: Comparsion of the German, Spanish, and Chinese versions of the General Self-Efficacy Scale. Applied Psychology, 46, 69–88. doi: 10.1111/j.1464-0597.1997.tb01096.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Seligman, M. E. P., & Peterson, C. (2004). Character strengths and virtues: A handbook and classification. Oxford University Press: New York, NY.Google Scholar