Journal of Happiness Studies

, Volume 14, Issue 4, pp 1363–1378 | Cite as

Refinement and Psychometric Properties of the Eight-Item Brazilian Positive and Negative Affective Schedule for Children (PANAS-C8)

  • Bruno Figueiredo Damásio
  • Juliana Cerentini Pacico
  • Michele Poletto
  • Sílvia Helena Koller
Research Paper


This study aimed to refine the Brazilian Positive and Negative Affect Scale for Children (PANAS-C34). A total of 1,160 children, between seven and 16 years of age (M = 11.2; SD = 1.92), from public elementary schools in eight Brazilian southern cities participated in the study. Four studies were conducted for this project. Study I (n = 370) evaluated the factorial structure of the PANAS-C34 (the original 34-item version). Ten potential items were selected for the instrument’s refined version. Employing an independent sample (n = 340), Study II assessed the utility of this ten-item version. Exploratory factor analysis, parallel analysis, and confirmatory factor analysis supported a bi-factorial solution. However, significant modification indices emerged for two items (happy and sad) regarding their respective factors and thus they were excluded. In Study III, using another independent sample (n = 450), it was demonstrated that the eight-item version (PANAS-C8) had better fit indices than the ten-item version. In Study IV (N = 1,160) a multigroup confirmatory factor analysis was conducted to evaluate the measurement invariance of the factorial solution across gender. Moreover, convergent validity was also evaluated using the Child Depression Inventory (CDI) and the General Life Satisfaction Scale for Children (GLSS-C). Measurement invariance was obtained for the PANAS-C8 across all the investigated model parameters. The correlations between the PANAS-C8 and both the CDI and the GLSS-C were of similar magnitude to those obtained using the PANAS-C34. The PANAS-C8 had adequate validity indices, demonstrating its usefulness in evaluating positive and negative affect in children.


Affect Children PANAS Refinement Brief version Multigroup confirmatory factor analysis 



The authors would like to thank two anonymous reviewers for their helpful comments on an earlier version of this manuscript.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bruno Figueiredo Damásio
    • 1
  • Juliana Cerentini Pacico
    • 1
  • Michele Poletto
    • 2
  • Sílvia Helena Koller
    • 1
  1. 1.Federal University of Rio Grande do SulPorto AlegreBrazil
  2. 2.Brazilian Institute of Business Management, IBGENPorto AlegreBrazil

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