The Construct Validity of the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale: Multisample and Longitudinal Evidence
- 4.4k Downloads
This study investigated the factor structure and factorial group and time invariance of the 17-item and 9-item versions of the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES; Schaufeli et al. (2002b) Journal of Happiness Studies 3:71–92). Furthermore, the study explored the rank-order stability of work engagement. The data were drawn from five different studies (N = 9,404), including a three-year longitudinal study (n = 2,555), utilizing five divergent occupational samples. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the hypothesized correlated three-factor structure—vigor, dedication, absorption—of both UWES scales. However, while the structure of the UWES-17 did not remain the same across the samples and time, the structure of the UWES-9 remained relatively unchanged. Thus, the UWES-9 has good construct validity and use of the 9-item version can be recommended in future research. Moreover, as hypothesized, Structural Equation Modeling showed high rank-order stabilities for the work engagement factors (between 0.82 and 0.86). Accordingly, work engagement seems to be a highly stable indicator of occupational well-being.
KeywordsWork engagement Utrecht Work Engagement Scale Construct validity Factor structure Factorial group and time invariance Rank-order stability
This study was supported by Yrjö Jahnsson foundation (Grant No.: 5459), Emil Aaltonen foundation, and The Finnish Work Environment Fund (Grant No.: 107200; Project No.: 104129, 105325, 105363).
- Bollen, K. A. (1989). Structural equations with latent variables. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.Google Scholar
- Bollen, K. A., & Long, J. S. (1993). Introduction. In K. A. Bollen & J. S. Long (Eds.), Testing structural equation models (pp. 1–9). Newbury Park, CA: Sage, cop.Google Scholar
- Browne, M. W., & Cudeck, R. (1993). Alternative ways of assessing model fit. In K. A. Bollen & J. S. Long (Eds.), Testing structural equation models (pp. 136–162). Newbury Park, CA: Sage, cop.Google Scholar
- Gray, E. K., & Watson, D. (2001). Emotion, mood, and temperament: Similarities, differences, and a synthesis. In R. L. Payne & C. L. Cooper (Eds.), Emotions at work: Theory, research and applications for management (pp. 21–43). Chichester: Wiley, cop.Google Scholar
- Hakanen, J. (2002). Työuupumuksesta työn imuun—positiivisen työhyvinvointikäsitteen arviointimenetelmän suomalaisen version validointi opetusalan organisaatiossa [From burnout to work engagement—validation of the Finnish version of an instrument for measuring work engagement (UWES) in an educational organization]. Työ ja ihminen, 16, 42–58.Google Scholar
- Hoyle, R. H., & Panter, A. T. (1995). Writing about structural equation models. In R. H. Hoyle (Ed.), Structural equation modeling: Concepts, issues, and application. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, cop.Google Scholar
- Jöreskog, K. G. (2005). Structural equation modeling with ordinal variables using LISREL (2nd ed.). Retrieved February 28, 2008, from http://www.ssicentral.com/lisrel/techdocs/ordinal.pdf.
- Jöreskog, K., & Sörbom, D. (1996a). LISREL 8: User’s reference guide. Chicago: Scientific Software International, Inc.Google Scholar
- Jöreskog, K., & Sörbom, D. (1996b). PRELIS 2: User’s reference guide. Chicago: Scientific Software International, Inc.Google Scholar
- Magnusson, D. (1998). The logic and implications of a person-oriented approach. In R. B. Cairns, L. R. Bergman, & J. Kagan (Eds.), Methods and models for studying the individual: Essays in honour of Marian Radke-Yarrow (pp. 33–64). Thousands Oaks, CA: Sage, cop.Google Scholar
- Maslach, C., Jackson, S. E., & Leiter, M. P. (1996). MBI: Maslach Burnout Inventory—Manual (3rd Rev. ed.). Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.Google Scholar
- Maslach, C., & Leiter, M. P. (1997). The truth about burnout: How organizations cause personal stress and what to do about it. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, Inc.Google Scholar
- Mauno, S., Kinnunen, U., Mäkikangas, A., & Nätti, J. (2005). Psychological consequences of fixed-term employment and perceived job insecurity among health care staff. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 14, 209–237.Google Scholar
- Schaufeli, W. B. (2007a). Literature list engagement. Retrieved February 28, 2008, from http://www.Schaufeli.com.
- Schaufeli, W. B. (2007b). Tests. Retrieved February, 28, 2008, from http://www.Schaufeli.com.
- Schaufeli, W., & Bakker, A. (2003). UWES Utrecht Work Engagement Scale. Preliminary Manual [Version 1, November 2003]. Utrecht University: Occupational Health Psychology Unit.Google Scholar
- Schaufeli, W., & Enzmann, D. (1998). The burnout companion to study and practice: A critical analysis. London: Taylor & Francis, cop.Google Scholar
- Schaufeli, W., & Salanova, M. (2007). Work engagement: An emerging psychological concept and its implications for organizations. In S. W. Gilliland, D. D. Steiner, & D. P. Skarlicki (Eds.), Research in social issues in management (Volume 5): Managing social and ethical issues in organizations (pp. 135–177). Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishers.Google Scholar
- Seligman, M. E. P. (2002). Positive psychology, positive prevention, and positive therapy. In C. R. Snyder & S. J. Lopez (Eds.), Handbook of positive psychology (pp. 3–9). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Seligman, M. E. P. (2003). Positive psychology: Fundamental assumptions. The Psychologist, 16, 126–127.Google Scholar
- Turner, N., Barling, J., & Zacharatos, A. (2002). Positive psychology at work. In C. R. Snyder & S. J. Lopez (Eds.), Handbook of positive psychology (pp. 715–728). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Warr, P. (1990). The measurement of well-being and other aspects of mental health. Journal of Occupational Psychology, 63, 193–210.Google Scholar
- Xanthopoulou, D., Bakker, A. B., Kantas, A., & Demerouti, E. (in press). The measurement of burnout and work engagement: A comparison of Greece and The Netherlands. New Review of Social Psychology.Google Scholar
- Yu, C.–Y. (2002). Evaluating cutoff criteria of model fit indices for latent variable models with binary and continuous outcomes. Retrieved February 28, 2008, from http://www.statmodel.com/download/Yudissertation.