Advertisement

Spatial assimilation? The development in immigrants’ residential career with duration of stay in Denmark

  • Hans Skifter Andersen
Article

Abstract

Many studies have shown that immigrants’ residential situation differs from that of natives and that factors other than housing needs and financial situation influence immigrants’ options and choices concerning housing and neighbourhood. Research has indicated that immigrants might have a stronger preference for renting due to insecurity about their future situation and that especially newly arrived immigrants tend to live in immigrant-dense, so-called multi-ethnic, neighbourhoods. However, the spatial assimilation theory claims that in the course of time immigrants will move to other kinds of housing and neighbourhoods. In this paper, the residential careers of immigrants in the first years after their arrival are examined and compared with Danes. The hypothesis tested is that over time the housing situation of immigrants gets closer to the comparable one for Danes. It is a longitudinal study based on data from 1985 to 2008 on non-Western immigrants in Denmark. The results show that non-Western immigrants steadily increased their presence in social housing and multi-ethnic neighbourhoods during their first 10 years of stay; then, their presence stagnates; and after 15 years, it declines. Part of the initial increase in the frequency of living in multi-ethnic neighbourhoods was not due to individual choices among immigrants but could be ascribed to the increasing number of multi-ethnic neighbourhoods over time. The study confirms spatial assimilation, also when controlling for degree of economic integration, but the change was not dramatic over the 24 years covered by the study.

Keywords

Immigrant settlement Spatial assimilation Segregation 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This paper was produced as part of the NODES project financed by NORFACE.

References

  1. Aalbers, M. B. (2002). The neglected evidence of housing market discrimination in the Netherlands. Radical Statistics Journal, 79(80), 161–169.Google Scholar
  2. Alba, R. D., & Logan, J. R. (1992). Assimilation and stratification in the homeownership patterns of racial and ethnic groups. International Migration Review, 26(4), 1314–1341.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Alba, R., & Nee, V. (1997). Rethinking assimilation theory for a new era of immigration. International Migration Review, 31(4).Google Scholar
  4. Andersen, H. S. (2006a). Etniske minoriteters flytninger og boligvalg. Hørsholm: Danish Building Research Institute.Google Scholar
  5. Andersen, H. S. (2006b). Bo sammen eller spredt? Etniske minoriteters boligønsker og motiver for bosætning. Hørsholm: Danish Building Research Institute.Google Scholar
  6. Andersen, H. S. (2010). Spatial assimilation in Denmark. Why do immigrants move to and from multi-ethnic neighbourhoods? Housing Studies, 25(3), 281–300.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Andersen, H. S. (2015a). Indvandring, integration og etnisk segregation. Udviklingen i indvandrernes bosætning siden 1985. Copenhagen: Danish Building Research Institute.Google Scholar
  8. Andersen, H. S. (2015b). Explanations for special neighbourhood preferences among ethnic minorities. Housing, Theory and society (E-pub ahead of print).Google Scholar
  9. Andersen, H. S., Andersson, R., Wessel, T., & Vilkama, K. (2015). Housing systems and ethnic spatial segregation: Comparing the capital cities of four Nordic Welfare States. International Journal of Housing Policy (Forthcoming).Google Scholar
  10. Andersen, H. S., Turner, L. M., & Søholt, S. (2013). The special importance of housing policy for the housing situation of ethnic minorities. Evidence from a comparison of four Nordic Countries. International Journal of Housing Policy, 131, 20–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Andersson, R. (1998). Socio-spatial dynamics: Ethnic divisions of mobility and housing in post-Palme Sweden. Urban Studies, 35(3), 397–428.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Arbaci, S. (2007). Ethnic Segregation. Housing systems and Welfare Regimes in Europe. International Journal of Housing Policy, 7(4), 401–433.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Artle, R., & Varaiya, P. (1978). Life cycle consumption and homeownership. Journal of Economic Theory, 18, 38–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bolt, G., Ozuekren, A. S., & Phillips, D. (2010a). Linking integration and residential segregation. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 36(2), 169–186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bolt, G., Phillips, D., & Van Kempen, R. (2010b). Housing policy, (de)segregation and social mixing: An international perspective. Housing Studies, 25(2), 129–135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bolt, G., & van Kempen, R. (2010). Ethnic segregation and residential mobility: Relocations of minority ethnic groups in the Netherlands. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 36(2), 333–354.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Bolt, G., Van Kempen, R., & Van Ham, M. (2008). Minority ethnic groups in the Dutch housing market: Spatial segregation. Relocation Dynamics and Housing Policy, Urban Studies, 45(7), 1359–1384.Google Scholar
  18. Borjas, G. J. (2002). Homeownership in the immigrant population. Journal of Urban Economics, 52, 448–476.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Bråmå, Å. (2006). ‘White Flight’? The production and reproduction of immigrant concentration areas in Swedish cities, 1990–2000. Urban Studies 2006, 43, 1127–1146.Google Scholar
  20. Carliner, G. (1974). Determinants of homeownership. Land Economics, 5, 109–119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Clark, W. A. V. (1992). Residential preferences and residential choices in a multi-ethnic context. Demography, 29, 451–466.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Conzen, K., Gerber, D., Morawska, E., Pozzetta, G., & Vecoli, R. (1992). The invention of ethnicity: A perspective from the U.S.A. Journal of American Ethnic History, 12, 3–41.Google Scholar
  23. Damm, A. P., Schultz-Nielsen, M. L., & Tranæs, T. (2006). En befolkning deler sig op?. Copenhagen: Gyldendal.Google Scholar
  24. Ersanilli, E., & Koopmans, R. (2010). Rewarding integration? Citizenship regulations and the socio-cultural integration of immigrants in the Netherlands, France and Germany. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 36(5), 773–791.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Finney, N. (2002). Ethnic group population change and interaction: A demographic perspective on ethnic geographies. Ethnicity and integration. Understanding Population Trends and Processes, 3, 27–45.Google Scholar
  26. Fong, E., & Chan, E. (2010). The effect of economic standing, individual preferences, and co-ethnic resources on immigrant residential clustering. International Migration Review, 44(1), 111–141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Glazer, N., & Moynihan, D. P. (1970). Beyond the melting pot: The Negroes, Puerto Ricans, Jews, Italians, and Irish of New York City. 1963. Reprint. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  28. Gordon, M. (1964). Assimilation in American life. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  29. Greenman, E., & Xie, Y. (2008). Is assimilation theory dead? The effect of assimilation on adolescent well-being. Social Science Research, 37, 109–137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Johnston, R., Forrest, J., & Poulsen, M. (2002). Are there ethnic enclaves in English Cities? Urban Studies, 39, 591–618.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Kalter, F., & Granato, N. (2001). Recent trends of assimilation in Germany. Fakultät für sozialwissenschaften ZUMA. Universitaet Mannheim.Google Scholar
  32. Kauppinen, T., Andersen, H. S., & Hedman, L. (2010). Determinants of immigrants’ entry to homeownership in three Nordic capital city regions. Paper for ENHR conference 2012 Toulouse.Google Scholar
  33. Luthra, R. R. (2009). Assimilation in a new context: Second generation educational attainment in Germany. California Center for Population Research On-Line Working Paper Series.Google Scholar
  34. Massey, D. S. (1985). Ethnic residential segregation: A theoretical synthesis and empirical review. Sociology and Social Research, 69, 315–350.Google Scholar
  35. Massey, D. S., & Denton, N. A. (1985). Spatial assimilation as a socioeconomic outcome. American Sociological Review, 50(1), 94–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Model, S. (1991). Caribbean immigrants: A black success story? International Migration Review, 25, 248–276.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Murdie, R. A. (2002). The housing careers of Polish and Somali newcomers in Toronto’s rental market. Housing Studies, 17(3), 423–443.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Murdie, R. A., & Ghosh, S. (2010). Does spatial concentration always mean a lack of integration? Exploring ethnic concentration and integration in Toronto. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 36(2), 293–311.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Musterd, S. (2005). Social and ethnic segregation in Europe: Levels, causes and effects. Journal of Urban Affairs, 27(3), 331–348.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Musterd, S., Ostendorf, W., & Breebaart, M. (1998). Multi-ethnic metropolis: Patterns and policies. Dordrecht: Kluwer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Nielsen, R. S., Holmquist, E., Dhalmann, H., & Søholst, S. (2014). Comparing Somalis’ perceived possibilities in the Nordic capital housing markets: Local context and cultural background. Housing Studies, 30(3), 433–452.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Özüekren, A. S., & van Kempen, R. (2002). Housing careers of minority ethnic groups: Experiences, explanations and prospects. Housing Studies, 17(3), 365–379.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Park, R. E., & Burgess, E. (1969). Introduction to the science of sociology. 1921. Reprint. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  44. Peach, C. (1998). South Asian and Caribbean ethnic minority housing choice in Britain. Urban Studies, 35(10), 1657–1680.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Portes, A., & Bach, R. L. (1985). Latin journey: Cuban and Mexican Immigrants in the United States. Los Angeles, CA: University of California.Google Scholar
  46. Portes, A., & Rumbaut, R. G. (Eds.). (2001). Legacies: The story of the immigrant second generation. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  47. Portes, A., & Zhou, M. (1993). The new second generation: Segmented assimilation and its variants. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 530, 74–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Quillian, L. (2002). Why is black–white residential segregation so persistent? Evidence on three theories from migration data. Social Science Research, 31, 197–202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Safi, M. (2008). The immigrant integration process in France: Inequalities and segmentation. Revue Française de Sociologie 2008/5, 49, 3–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Schaake, K., Burgers, J., & Mulder, C. H. (2014). Ethnicity, education and income, and residential mobility between neighbourhoods. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 40(4), 512–527.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Schaeffer, P. V., & Bukenya, J. O. (2010). Assimilation of foreigners in former West Germany. International Migration Early View. Article first published online: 15 APR 2010.Google Scholar
  52. Sinning, M. (2010). Homeownership and economic performance of immigrants in Germany. Urban Studies 2010, 47, 387.Google Scholar
  53. Slack, T., & Jensen, L. (2007). Underemployment across immigrant generations. Social Science Research, 36(2007), 1415–1430.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Søholt, S. (2007). Gjennom nåløyeten sammenligning av tilpasninger til boligmarkedet blant hushold av pakistansk, tamilsk og somalisk bakgrunn, Oslo 19702003 (Through the eye of a needlea comparison of adaptions to the housing market among households with Pakistani, Tamil and Somali background, Oslo 19702003). Thesis. Oslo: Institute for Political Science, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Oslo.Google Scholar
  55. Søholt, S., & Astrup, K. (2009). Etniske minoriteter og forskjellsbehandling i leiemarkedet (Ethnic minorities and unequal treatment in the rental market). NIBR-report: 2. Oslo: Norwegian Institute for Urban and Regional Research.Google Scholar
  56. South, S. J., Crowder, K., & Chavez, E. (2005). Migration and spatial assimilation among U.S. Latinos: Classical versus segmented trajectories. Demography, 42(3), 497–521.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Valdez, Z. (2006). Segmented assimilation among Mexicans in the Southwest. Sociological Quarterly, 47(3), 397–424.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. van Kempen, R. (2003). Segregation and housing conditions of immigrants in Western European Cities. Eurex Lecture 7. 13 March. http://www.shiva.uniurb.it/eurex/syllabus/lecture7/Lecture7-VanKempen.pdf.
  59. van Kempen, R., & Özuekren, A. S. (1998). Ethnic segregation in cities: New forms and explanations in a dynamic world. Urban Studies, 35, 1631–1653.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Wright, R., Ellis, M., & Parks, V. (2005). Re-placing whiteness in spatial assimilation research. City and Community, 5(2), 111–135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Danish Building Research InstituteAalborg UniversityÅlborgDenmark

Personalised recommendations